Difference between revisions of "Fascism"
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Прибуття Е. ф. Ріббентропа в Москву 1939 р. (Jun 13, 2011)
Прибуття Е. ф. Ріббентропа в Москву 1939 р. (Jun 13, 2011)
Why the Regime Cultivates the Concept of the “National Insecurity”. 19 July 2013.
Russian version of this article: [[Фашизм]]
Russian version of this article: [[Фашизм]]
Revision as of 21:16, 19 July 2013
Fascism (Фашизм) is a political ideology, practice and religion that seeks national unity through patriotism, collectivism and strong suppression or extermination of any liberalism and opposition. Fascism generally treat any individual as a subservient to the group; those who do not accept this are considered as enemies; the dictatorship of the strongly organized group is justified. Fascism usually implies the existence of a at least one strong leader, fuhrer; the canonical texts by the leader are considered as irrefutable true. In such a way, fascism substitutes all the historical concepts of morality with submission to the interests of the patriotic group, expressed by the leader.
The idea of fascism, the self-identification and ethimology
The main assumption of the fascistic religion, fascistic elite, fascistic group is that the superiority gives namely this group the moral right to dominate over all other people and use all methods necessary to provide such domination: propaganda of xenophobia, terror, racket, taking hostages, the war of extermination, cruelty. These methods, both theory and practice in Russia were well described by V.Lenin since the beginning of the century 20.
Fascism is characterized with negative attitude with respect to intents of its discussion, critics and identification. Typical for fascism is the cult of the leader, the believe to the wisdom and the good will of the leader. In general, fascists do not identify their ideology as fascism; there is only one exception: in 1930s–1940s, the Italian fascists called their main canonical text The doctrine of fascism, after their leader Benito Mussolini . Fascism means "unity", Corporate personality, collective protectionism, and implies that some group, party, mafia suppresses all other (less organized) humans.
The term Fascism arises from Italian fascismo, fascio, (Latino fasces) that means fascine - a rough bundle of brushwood used for strengthening an earthen structure, or making a path across uneven or wet terrain; fascines often are considered as some cheap, available substitute of a more serious material. The ethnology has deep analogy; fascism is also a way to make a temporally–strong society from very weak and amoral members.
The ideas of fascism may look very attractive . If a country has no immunity to fascism, it spreads faster than the majority of people understand, what is happening to their society.
Elite and their methods
The elite, that unites the fascists, may be realized as a social class, a nation, rase, Sect. It is postulated that the elite leads the society and all the Humanity to the prosperity, happiness, progress and, therefore, they should use any methods to provide their dominance. Such methods may include the terror , concentration camps , racket , spend of the enormous budget for the agitation and propaganda , genocide , confiscation of food  и and other properties, arresting and killing of hostages , mass murders of not only enemies but also the neutral civilians , destruction of communications  blocking of the food delivery to the starving regions , total censorship and centralized mass-media companies aiming defamation of opponents  and the secret political murders. V.Lenin used to describe such a politics in the article “Democracy” and Dictatorship . Fascism accepts terror as necessary state practice, it is justified and legalized . In a fascist state, the security forces follow any order of the leader. To some extent, the term "illegal" loses its usual meaning: the laws are edited aiming to justify any action of the ruling party, up to expulsion or physical elimination of the former party members. However, even these laws in fascist states are systematically violated, the criminal traditions become dominant, and the police follows these traditions instead of the law . The indicator of the fascist state is the single-party system, although not every fascist state dare to declare such a system in the Constitution .
In the 1920s-1930s, the ideas of fascism came to Germany and then to Italy. The canonical text that describes the essence of German Fascism (i.e. Hitlerism) is Adolf Hitler's book My Struggle (Mein Kampf) .
In Hitlerism, as adopted by the elite of the Aryan race, and the main enemies are Jews, their ethnicity and their nation. According to this feature, Hitlerism is also called Nazism. The choice of victim makes the main difference between Hitlerism and Stalinism (named after Stalin, the leader of the USSR), in which the enemies are identified by their class origin. Until year 1941, both Hitlerism and Stalinism collaborated in the destruction of internal enemies and offending (occupying) the neighbor countries  . Many English translations of texts of the Nazi and post-nazi propaganda are available at the Calvin's site . The German fascism has many similar with the Soviet fascism; in particular, the German and Soviet fascists used similar songs  and distributed similar pictures .
The concept of fascism refined in the Italian leader Benito Mussolini's Fascist doctrine (La dottrina del fascismo)  published in 1933. This doctrine expresses the essence of fascism in general terms allowing the application to different countries and epochs. That article gave fascism its current name. Fascism offers humanity new absolute ethics, replacing all of the historical foundations of morality.
Identification of Fascism
Lawrence Britt suggests the 14 criteria to identify fascism :
1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays.
2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights. Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of "need." The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.
3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause. The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc.
4. Supremacy of the Military. Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized.
5. Rampant Sexism. The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Opposition to abortion is high, as is homophobia and anti-gay legislation and national policy.
6. Controlled Mass Media. Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.
7. Obsession with National Security. Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.
8. Religion and Government are Intertwined. Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government's policies or actions.
9. Corporate Power is Protected. The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.
10. Labor Power is Suppressed. Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed .
11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts. Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts is openly attacked, and governments often refuse to fund the arts.
12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment. Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations.
13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption. Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.
14. Fraudulent Elections. Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.
Fascism in century 21
After the century 20, the hitlerism and stalinism are condemned; in general, any fascism is not welcomed in civilized countries. In some countries, the book Mein Kampf is banned  The ban give the neo-fascists  more opportunities: they recycle the fascistic ideas and re-use them without to cite the sources. The groups, united with the collective narcissism, pretend to be "anti-fascists", while they never had red the classic fascists documents and can neither classify, nor even identify the phenomena of fascism in century 21 .
Words fascism and fascist are also often used as a pejorative name. This was lucidly described by George Orwell . Often, the term "fascism" is used without any other semantic meaning. In particular, the nashists by themselves use the term 'fascism' with respect to any ideology, different from nashism (and rejecting the application of the term to their own group, party). The bans on the canonical fascist texts serves the spreading of fascism rather than its suppression; the members of a political organization have no opportunities to see similarities in the canonical fascist texts and the doctrines of their own parties; again and again, they invent the fascistic ideas by themselves .
The terroristic acts similar to the Nevsky Express bombing (2009) appear as phenomena of fascism, as use of any methods for the goal of dominance; the same can be said about practice of murdering of journalists and other political opponents.
- http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/Germany/mussolini.htm Benito Mussolini. The doctrine of fascism. (1933)
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bs5bnVoZK4Q WildTh1ngs on Jan 13, 2009. Tomorrow belongs to me. A Memorable Scene from the movie Cabaret (1972)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p142n257.shtml док.257 Ленин Федорову, 1918 (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p143bn259.shtml док.259 Ленин организует концлагеря. (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.143-144) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p144c261.shtml док.261 Ленинские заложники. (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.144-145) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p149bn269.shtml док.269 Ленин не жалеет средств на агитацию. (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.149) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p154n280.shtml док.280 Ленин организует геноцид. (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.154) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p156an283.shtml док.283 Ленин конфискует хлеб. (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.156) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p160an292.shtml док.292 Ленин берет заложников, конфискует имущество (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.165) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p165bn302.shtml док.302 Ленин расстреливает колеблющихся. (Ленин ПСС т.50 с.160) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p168bn307.shtml док.307 Ленин про подрывную деятельность и истребление. (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.168) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p220an389.shtml док.389 Ленин регулирует голод (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.220) (in Russian)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin50p291an535.shtm док.535 Ленин организует газетную травлю (В.Ленин, ПСС т.50, с.291) (in Russian)
- http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/dec/23.htm V.Lenin. “Democracy” and Dictatorship. Pravda, January 3, 1919. No.2; Lenin Collected Works, Volume 28, p.368-72. English Transcription by Brian Baggins.
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/lenin45p090.shtml В.Ленин. О легализации терроризма. 1922. (В.Ленин, ПСС т.45, с.189) ..Суд должен не устранить террор; обещать это было бы самообманом или обманом, а обосновать и узаконить его.. (In Russian. Meaning: The court should not eliminate terror, to promise this would be a delusion or a fraud, but to justify and legitimize it..)
- http://samlib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/leonardzakon.shtml Л.Б.Терновский. Закон и "понятия". (Леонард Терновский. Воспоминания и статьи. Возвращение, Москва, 2006.) (In Russian)
- http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/cnst1977.htm КОНСТИТУЦИЯ (Основной Закон) СОЮЗА СОВЕТСКИХ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКИХ РЕСПУБЛИК. Принята на внеочередной седьмой сессии Верховного Совета СССР девятого созыва 7 октября 1977 г. Статья 6. Руководящей и направляющей силой советского общества, ядром его политической системы, государственных и общественных организаций является Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза... (In Russian. Cite from the Soviet Constitution about the dominant role of the Communist party)
- http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks02/0200601.txt Adolf Hitler. Mein Kampf. Englih translation by James Murphy, updated: September 2002.
- http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/nazsov.asp Nazi-Soviet Relations 1939-1941 (In English)
- http://razvedkanet.narod.ru/tittletxt/nkvd-gestapoci.htm ГЕНЕРАЛЬНОЕ СОГЛАШЕНИЕ. О сотрудничестве, взаимопомощи, совместной деятельности между Главным управлением государственной безопасности НКВД СССР и Главным управлением безопасности Национал-Социалистической рабочей партии Германии (ГЕСТАПО). время подписания: гор. Москва 11 ноября 1938 г. 15 час 40 мин. (In Russian)
- http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/German-Soviet_Boundary_and_Friendship_Treaty_28_September_1939 (in English)
- http://www.hronos.km.ru/dokum/molotov.html Молотов В.М. Доклад о внешней политике Правительства, 31 октября 1939 года. (V.Molotov. Report about foreign policy of the Govenrment, in Russian)
- http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ Nazi and East German Propaganda.
- http://avmalgin.livejournal.com/2839826.html Русский и немец - братья навек. 2012.01.02,9:35. (In Russian)
- http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/Ностальгирующим_(Нестеренко) (In Russian, but look at the illustrations)
- http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/fasci14chars.html Lawrence Britt. The 14 Characteristics of Fascism. Spring 2003. Copyright © 2003 Free Inquiry magazine. Reprinted for Fair Use Only.
- http://www.rferl.org/content/Russia_Bans_Mein_Kampf/1994662.html Russia Bans 'Mein Kampf'. [Radio Liberty], March 26, 2010.
- Zbigniew Brzezinski. Moscow's Mussolini (How Putin Is Creating a Fascist State). Sept. 20, 2004
- http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2007/07/putin-russia-nashi-soviet Gavin Knight. The alarming spread of fascism in Putin"s Russia], 24 July 2007
- http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,514891,00.html Anselm Waldermann. The Nashi Movement. The New Statesman, 2007 Nov. 2
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02bAxFOQMdw North Korea army. sarmoudi90 on Aug 13, 2011.
- http://www.orwell.ru/library/articles/As_I_Please/english/efasc George Orwell. "What is Fascism?" (1944)
- http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/orwell46.htm George Orwell. Politics and the English Language which makes similar reference to the pejorative use of 'fascism'.
- http://hnn.us/roundup/entries/7455.html Zbigniew Brzezinski. Moscow's Mussolini (How Putin Is Creating a Fascist State). Sept. 20, 2004
- http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/guest_contributors/article1884277.ece Michael Binyon. Is Putin the bully leading Russia into fascism? The Times, June 5, 2007.
- http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2007/07/putin-russia-nashi-soviet Gavin Knight. The alarming spread of fascism in Putin"s Russia. 24 July 2007.
- http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,514891,00.html Anselm Waldermann. The Nashi Movement, 2007 Nov. 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1YfsIeMKzM http://olegpanfilov2.livejournal.com/2608512.html (the same without ad) Оккупация: фильм 1-й "Голодомор". KanalPIK on Feb 24, 2012. История, которую нужно знать. 5 миллионов погибших по данным энциклопедии «Британника». 7 миллионов погибших по данным энциклопедии «Брокгауза». Точных данных не существует. Ад, устроенный советской властью на украинской земле.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk5aZYVhxAg The Wall - Pink Floyd - In The Flesh - Run Like Hell - Waiting For The Worms pavijangp on Dec 27, 2008.
http://mgsupgs.livejournal.com/1100282.html Колымские дети. 22:00 Май, 24, 2013.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHs2coAzLJ8 Triumph des Willens (1935) - Triumph of the Will. Sep 22, 2011 Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film made by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg, which was attended by more than 700,000 Nazi supporters. The film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including portions of speeches by Adolf Hitler, interspersed with footage of massed party members. Hitler commissioned the film and served as an unofficial executive producer; his name appears in the opening titles. The overriding theme of the film is the return of Germany as a great power, with Hitler as the True German Leader who will bring glory to the nation.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZsIviEBjoHo Прибуття Е. ф. Ріббентропа в Москву 1939 р. (Jun 13, 2011)
http://www.imrussia.org/en/politics/516-why-the-regime-cultivates-the-concept-of-the-national-insecurity Why the Regime Cultivates the Concept of the “National Insecurity”. 19 July 2013.
Russian version of this article: Фашизм