# File:FFTexample16T.png

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Original file(2,101 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/png)

Comparison of the discrete Fourier transform, shown with red, of a self–Fourier function $A(x)=\exp(-x^2/2)$, shown with black dots, to the result of the numerical evaluation of the the Fourier operator of array $A$, shown with blue. The discrete representation is performed with number of nodes $n\!=\!16$.

The image is generated in the following way.

The lines are drawn in the EPS format by the C++ code below. The result is concerted to PDF format.

The labels are added in the latex document below.

The result is concerted to the PNG format with default reaolution.

## C++ generator of curves

File fafo.cin should be loaded to the working directory for the compilation of the code below.

#include<math.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <complex>
using namespace std;
#define z_type complex<double>
#define Re(x)  x.real()
#define Im(x)  x.imag()
#define RI(x)  x.real(),x.imag()
#define DB double
#define DO(x,y) for(x=0;x<y;x++)

void ado(FILE *O, int X, int Y)
fprintf(O,"%c%cBoundingBox: 0 0 %d %d\n",'%','%',X,Y);
fprintf(O,"/M {moveto} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/L {lineto} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/S {stroke} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/s {show newpath} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/C {closepath} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/F {fill} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/o {.025 0 360 arc C F} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/times-Roman findfont 20 scalefont setfont\n");
fprintf(O,"/W {setlinewidth} bind def\n");
fprintf(O,"/RGB {setrgbcolor} bind def\n");}

#include"fafo.cin"

// DB F(DB x){DB u=x*x; return u*(-3.+u)*exp(-x*x/2.);}
DB F(DB x){ return exp(-x*x/2.);}

main(){z_type * a, *b, c; int j,m,n, N=16; FILE *o;
double step=sqrt(2*M_PI/N),x,y,u;
a=(z_type *) malloc((size_t)((N+1)*sizeof(z_type)));
b=(z_type *) malloc((size_t)((N+1)*sizeof(z_type)));
//for(j=0;j<N;j++) { x=step*(j-N/2); u=x*x; a[j]=b[j]=(3.+u*(-6.+u))*exp(-x*x/2); }
for(j=0;j<N;j++) { x=step*(j-N/2); u=x*x; a[j]=b[j]=F(x); }
fft(b,N,1);
for(j=0;j<N;j++) printf("%2d %18.15f %18.15f  %18.15f %18.15f\n", j, RI(a[j]), RI(b[j])  );
#define M(x,y) fprintf(o,"%6.4f %6.4f M\n",0.+x,0.+y);
#define L(x,y) fprintf(o,"%6.4f %6.4f L\n",0.+x,0.+y);
#define o(x,y) fprintf(o,"%6.4f %6.4f o\n",0.+x,0.+y);
fprintf(o,"522 340 translate 100 100 scale\n");
// M(-5,0) L(5,0) M(0,0) L(0,1) fprintf(o,".01 W S\n");
// M(-5,1) L(5,1) M(-5,-1) L(5,-1)
for(m=-5;m<6;m++) {M(m,-3) L(m,3)} fprintf(o,".004 W S\n");
for(m=-3;m<4;m++) {M(-5,m) L(5,m)} fprintf(o,".004 W S\n");
fprintf(o,"1 setlinejoin 1 setlinecap\n");
DB *X; X=(DB *) malloc((size_t)((N+1)*sizeof(DB))); DO(j,N){ x=step*(j-N/2); X[j]=x; }
DO(j,N){x=X[j]; M(x,0)L(x,.15)} fprintf(o,".01 W S\n");
DO(j,N){x=X[j];y=Re(a[j]); if(j==0)M(x,y)else L(x,y);} fprintf(o,".04 W 0 .4 1 RGB S\n");
DO(j,N){x=X[j];y=Re(b[j]); if(j==0)M(x,y)else L(x,y);} fprintf(o,".04 W 1 0 0 RGB S\n");
// DO(j,N){x=X[j];y=Im(b[j]); if(j==0)M(x,y)else L(x,y);} fprintf(o,".04 W 1 0 0 RGB S\n");
// DO(j,N){x=X[j];y=100.*(Re(b[j])-F(x)); if(j==0)M(x,y)else L(x,y);} fprintf(o,"0.007 W 0 0 .3 RGB S\n");
printf("X[0]=%9.5f step=%9.6f\n",X[0],step);
// DO(m,101){x=-5.+.1*m; y=F(x); if(m/2*2==m)M(x,y)else L(x,y);} fprintf(o,".01 W 0 0 0 RGB S\n");
fprintf(o,".01 W 0 0 0 RGB S\n");
DO(m,101){x=-5.+.1*m; y=F(x); o(x,y)}
fprintf(o,"showpage\n%cTrailer",'%'); fclose(o);
system("epstopdf FFTexample16.eps");
system(    "open FFTexample16.pdf"); //these 2 commands may be specific for macintosh
getchar(); system("killall Preview");// if run at another operational system, may need to modify
free(a);
free(b);
free(X);
}


## Latex generator of lables

FIle FFTexample16.pdf shouild be generated with the code above for the compiation of the latex document below.

\documentclass[12pt]{article} %<br> \usepackage{geometry} %<br> \paperwidth 1012pt %<br> \paperheight 740pt %<br> \textheight 800pt \topmargin -104pt %<br> \oddsidemargin -92pt %<br> \parindent 0pt %<br> \pagestyle{empty} %<br> \usepackage{graphicx} %<br> \newcommand \sx \scalebox %<br> \begin{document} %<br> \begin{picture}(1024,742) %<br> \put(4,0){\includegraphics{FFTexample16}} %<br> %\put(510,732){\sx{2.4}{$y$}} %<br> \put(510,634){\sx{2.5}{$y$}} %<br> \put(510,532){\sx{2.4}{$2$}} %<br> \put(510,432){\sx{2.4}{$1$}} %<br> %\put(510,320){\sx{2.4}{$0$}} %<br> \put(496,232){\sx{2.4}{$-\!1$}} %<br> \put(496,132){\sx{2.4}{$-\!2$}} %<br> \put(496, 32){\sx{2.4}{$-\!3$}} %<br> %<br> \put(104,310){\sx{2.4}{$-4$}} %<br> \put(204,310){\sx{2.4}{$-3$}} %<br> \put(304,310){\sx{2.4}{$-2$}} %<br> \put(404,310){\sx{2.4}{$-1$}} %<br> \put(522,310){\sx{2.4}{$0$}} %<br> \put(622,310){\sx{2.4}{$1$}} %<br> \put(722,310){\sx{2.4}{$2$}} %<br> \put(822,310){\sx{2.4}{$3$}} %<br> \put(923,310){\sx{2.4}{$4$}} %<br> \put(1016,311){\sx{2.5}{$x$}} %<br> \put(19,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_0$}} %<br> \put(79,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_1$}} %<br> \put(140,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_2$}} %<br> \put(199,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_3$}} %<br> \put(261,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_4$}} %<br> \put(327,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_5$}} %<br> \put(388,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_6$}} %<br> \put(450,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_7$}} %<br> \put(518,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_8$}} %<br> \put(578,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_9$}} %<br> \put(640,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_{10}$}} %<br> \put(704,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_{11}$}} %<br> \put(767,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_{12}$}} %<br> \put(829,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_{13}$}} %<br> \put(890,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_{14}$}} %<br> \put(950,360){\sx{2.6}{$x_{15}$}} %<br> \end{picture} %<br> \end{document} %

## File history

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Date/TimeThumbnailDimensionsUserComment
current17:50, 20 June 20132,101 × 1,536 (155 KB)Maintenance script (talk | contribs)Importing image file
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