Difference between revisions of "Paradox"

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Paradox is any confusion, misunderstanding, mistake, error, caused by the application of a commonly accepted concept (usually, a scientific concept) outside the range of its validity, see applicability.

Usually, it is assumed, that the widely spread concept work in any case, omnipotent.

Sovetism, Marxism considers itself as omnipotent doctrine [1]. On the base of this doctrine, the building of communism (in the First meaning of this term) in year 1940 had been expected, then in year 1980, see The Current Generation of Soviet People Will Live Under Communism. The Soviet veteranss may consider as a paradox, that, instead of to get communism, the country initiated wars, that led to poverty, the shortage in everything, famine, genocide and criminalization of the society (total Corruption).

Paradoxes appear at any attempt to use postulates of sovetism in description of historical events.

Paradoxes appear at the application of the classical mechanics to relativistic or quantum phenomena.[2]

The Zeno effect is essentially quantum phenomenon (has no classical analogy); its quatnum intepretation shows good ageement with experiments, for example, in analysis of ridged atomic mirrors[3]. However, at wrong misinterpretation, the Zeno effect leads to contradictions and is qualified as Zeno paradox [4][5].

The idea about inevitable transformation, transition of quantitative changes to qualitative change leads to concept of existence of some Mizugadro number, that breake the rules or arithmetic.


  1. https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1913/mar/x01.htm Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism. Published: Prosveshcheniye No 3., March 1913. Signed: V. I.. Published according to the Prosveshcheniye text. Source: Lenin’s Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1977, Moscow, Volume 19, pages 21-28. Translated: The Late George Hanna Original Transcription: Lee Joon Koo and Marc Luzietti Re-Marked up by: K. Goins (2008) Public Domain: Lenin Internet Archive (1996). .. The Marxist doctrine is omnipotent because it is true. ..
  2. http://sites.science.oregonstate.edu/~stetza/ph407H/Quantum.pdf Albert Stetz. Life, the Universe and Everything. 2000. The Paradoxes of Quantum Mechanics.
  3. http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/PAPERS/PhysRevA_72_013617.pdf http://mizugadro.mydns.jp/PAPERS/PhysRevLett_94_013203.pdf D.Kouznetsov, H.Oberst Scattering of waves at ridged mirrors. Physical Review A, 2005, v. 72, issue 1, 013617; doi=10.1103/PhysRevA.72.013617
  4. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.523304 B.Misra and E.C.G.Sudarshan. The Zeno’s paradox in quantum theory. Journal of Mathematical Physics 18, 756 (1977); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.523304
  5. https://mathworld.wolfram.com/ZenosParadoxes.html Zeno's paradoxes are a set of four paradoxes dealing with counterintuitive aspects of continuous space and time.// 1. Dichotomy paradox: Before an object can travel a given distance d, it must travel a distance d/2. In order to travel d/2, it must travel d/4, etc. Since this sequence goes on forever, it therefore appears that the distance d cannot be traveled. The resolution of the paradox awaited calculus and the proof that infinite geometric series such as sum_(i=1)^(infty)(1/2)^i=1 can converge, so that the infinite number of "half-steps" needed is balanced by the increasingly short amount of time needed to traverse the distances. // 2. Achilles and the tortoise paradox: A fleet-of-foot Achilles is unable to catch a plodding tortoise which has been given a head start, since during the time it takes Achilles to catch up to a given position, the tortoise has moved forward some distance. But this is obviously fallacious since Achilles will clearly pass the tortoise! The resolution is similar to that of the dichotomy paradox.// 3. Arrow paradox: An arrow in flight has an instantaneous position at a given instant of time. At that instant, however, it is indistinguishable from a motionless arrow in the same position, so how is the motion of the arrow perceived?// 4. Stade paradox: A paradox arising from the assumption that space and time can be divided only by a definite amount.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_Zeno_effect The quantum Zeno effect (also known as the Turing paradox) is a feature of quantum-mechanical systems allowing a particle's time evolution to be arrested by measuring it frequently enough with respect to some chosen measurement setting.[1]


Applicability, Mizugadro number, Ridged mirror, Sovetism, The Current Generation of Soviet People Will Live Under Communism, TORI axioms, Zeno effect