Place of science

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Place of science is the upgrade of article Place of science in the human knowledge.

The reason of the duplicate is: I dislike, how it is formatted by the Indian Editorial "International publishjing"

Place of science in the human knowledge

Dmitrii Koznetsov


The simple model for the classification of knowledge is suggested. The four types of knowledge are considered: customs, arts, religions and sciences. The strict definition of science is suggested to distinguish it from other kinds of knowledge and from pseudo-science. The model indicates the methodology of the scientific research that is aimed to avoid conflicts between science and other kinds of knowledge. This approach is suggested to exclude some concepts from the scientific knowledge by some formal criteria at very beginning of the consideration.

Keywords: Fundementals of physics; metodology; Mizugadro; physical mathematics; religion; science; TORI Axioms.

1. Preface

Podvig-barona.jpg Fig.1. Idea of inertioids [1]

This research is motivated by huge amount of fake results. Many of them pretend to be scientific.

Especially grave the frauds are in Russia, due to the total corruption [2].

An example of a fraud is development of inertioids at the Russian Khrinichev Space research center. The famous inertioid, installed at the satellite Yubileiny, is called Gravitsapa, after the fantastic device from movie Kin-dza-dza [3][4][5].
The idea of such a device is shown in Fig.1. The leaders of the Russian cosmic program claim, that, using movement of particles inside the device, the satellite moves from one orbit to another.

The bulletin [6] collects warnings about the danger tendencies in the development of the Russian science in century 21, and indicates many cases of the abuse.

The abilities of pseudo-scientists to publish tricks greatly exceed the abilities of enthusiasts to analyze and to criticise them. Then, the budget used for the money laundering, leaving no support for the scientific research. We need formal criteria to identify peseudo-scientific results. Such criteria are main topic of this article. The criteria use the classification [7][8] of the Human knowledge, mentioned in the title.

2. About truth

RisII.gif Error at Soviet textbook

Often, it is supposed, that the scientific research is true, correct, and the pseudo-scientific research is false, wrong, non-correct; so, for the qualification of any concept, it is sufficient to check it, to verify it, and, if it is wrong, to reject is. Such a common sense looks reasonable, but the abilities of pseudo-scientists to write the wrong papers and get foundation for pseudo-science greatly exceeds the abilities of scientists to criticize them, to reveal errors and to indicate, that some research is just wrong.

In this paper, the different approach is suggested. The idea is not to criticize each wrong concept, but to suggest the narrow definition of term “Science" in such a way, that any concept can be qualified as “scientific" or “non-scientific", whenever this concept is correct or wrong. This cannot substitute the common sense, mentioned above, but gives some formal criteria, that allow to reduce the amount of results, that deserve serious consideration.

Many Russian colleagues at school had to accept the strange concepts:
1. Our Universe is infinite both in space and in time.
2. For photosynthesis, the green leaves use the central part of the visible spectrum of solar light.
3. The gradual evolution of a species with genotype of 48 chromosomes (monkey) led to the new specie with genotype of 46 chromosomes (mankind).
4. The communism in the USSR will occur within 20 years (The Current Generation of Soviet People Will Live Under Communism) [9][10]

Such concepts were suggested at the Soviet schools as a “scientific truths". However, they are neither true, nor even scientific. At least they do not fit the definition of science, suggested below in section 8.

The Soviet veterans continue their attempts to declare the postulates of Sovietism (that, are I think, just wrong) as a truth, as scientific facts; the attempts to understand, what happened in century 20, why the communism was not built-up, why the USSR collapsed, why Russia become a base of prime products, etc. are declared as ‘pseudoscience’ and ‘false history’ [11][12][13]

3. Karl Popper and Objectivity

Karl Popper.jpg K.Popper, 1980's

In century 20, Karl Popper had formulated the criteria, that allows to identify the special, extremely efficient kind of human knowledge [14][15][16]

He called it science, although term science is used before in a little bit different meaning; that meaning included the claim of objectivity: I frame no hypothesis, Isaac Newton wrote [17].

Roughly speaking, the science was considered to be a truth, that does not need any refutation.

Popper, contrary, suggests the criterion of refutability as the key property of science, modifying the meaning of term “science".

For Popper, the thing that makes a concept scientific is not its objectivity, but the possibility to verify it,to falsify it, to criticise it arguably and to refute it [14]:

1. It is easy to obtain confirmations, or verifications, for nearly every theory - if we look for confirmations.

2. Confirmations should count only if they are the result of risky predictions; that is to say, if, unenlightened by the theory in question, we should have expected an event which wasincompatible with the theory - an event which would have refuted the theory.

3. Every “good" scientific theory is a prohibition: it forbids certain things to happen. The more a theory forbids, the better it is.

4. A theory which is not refutable by any conceivable event is non-scientific. Irrefutability is not a virtue of a theory (as people often think) but a vice.

5. Every genuine test of a theory is an attempt to falsify it, or to refute it. Testability is falsifiability; but there are degrees of testability: some theories are more testable, more exposed to refutation, than others; they take, as it were, greater risks.

6. Confirming evidence should not count except when it is the result of a genuine test of the theory;and this means that it can be presented as a serious but unsuccessful attempt to falsify the theory. (I now speak in such cases of “corroborating evidence".)

7. Some genuinely testable theories, when found to be false, are still upheld by their admirers - for example by introducing ad hoc some auxiliary assumption, or by reinterpreting the theory ad hoc in such a way that it escapes refutation. Such a procedure is always possible, but it rescues the theory from refutation only at the price of destroying, or at least lowering, its scientific status.

The requirement of refutability opposes the believe in the ability to get some objective knowledge [18]:
Objective truth is that part of our knowledge which correctly reflects reality and does not depend uponthe subject, i.e. on human consciousness and will. Objective method, therefore, means the method, that leads to knowledge of objective truth. For materialism, ‘the recognition of objective truth is fundamental’; consequently all materialist science must be objective in method.

There where were some doubts about the humanitarian science, but the objectivity of the natural sciences was believed to be well established and irrefutable. Popper denies even this belief. This point of view was not accepted [19] by several researchers; they suggest the non-refutable concepts, in hope, that they do namely science, but not a religion. However, the qualification of such activity as a science or a religion depends on definitions of terms science and religion. This indicates the need to elaborate the appropriate definitions; they are provided below in the special sections. The human knowledge is classified a way, that does not allow science to deal with non-refutable concepts.

The classification suggested includes only 4 categories: Customs, Arts, religions and sciences. The four next sections describe them.

4. Customs

Drunk051.jpg Fig.2. Example of custom [20]

The category of customs includes not only the commonly accepted behavior of humans, but also the habitual semantics of commonly used human languages. Even the custom habit to drink vodka from the bottle, shown in Fig.2, should be considered as knowledge.

Customs are the meanings of words. At least part of semantics appears as a custom.

The usual meaning of the Bible is a custom, widely accepted in the Christian community. The sentence You shall love your neighbor as yourself allows various interpretations [21][22], dependently on the meaning of the word love and its Hebrew and Aramaic equivalents. Some interpretations are not popular, they are not customs. The interpretations of the New Testament by Tim Rice [23] and that Michael Bulgakov [24], due to the wide spreading, can be qualified not only as an art, but also as a custom, at least in certain literature or musical communities. Such an interpretation should be qualified a knowledge. In such a way, the meaning of words appear as a knowledge.

The folklore also falls in the category of custom. It is any knowledge that is difficult to investigate by the any systematic methods. Any legend, story, narration leaves from category folklore, from category custom and becomes art or even science (history), as soon as it is written, published, exposed and considered in a scientific way as a historic evidence.

The semantics of the human languages and their understanding, the meaning of words is important part of a language. It forms the most important part of the human knowledge. Namely this kind of knowledge gives sense to other kinds of knowledge, considered below.

5. Art

02178SnowGirlShokaFragment.jpg Tsuru01s.png KouznetsovPaintFlowers018.jpg KouznetsovPaintSky019.jpg MalevicCross.jpg

ToriByVika591x744.jpg 007brpf3.jpeg Pravila-gigieny.jpg

Fig.3. Five examples of works by various artists [25][26][27][28][29]

Few examples of objects I consider as art [30] are shown in Fig. 3.

In order to be more specific, I suggest the definition below:

Art is any kind of knowledge that is free from internal rules and is realized in a reproducible form that allow its systematic investigation.

Such a definition corresponds to a goal formulated in the introduction, although it slightly reduces the set of things which could be called art. Usually, a product of art has the following properties:

A1. Beauty: Here, the beauty is the extensive ability of any unexpected use. The prehistoric hunter, painting and observing an image of an animal on a rock, may guess how to catch this animal; the reader, laughing on a comedy, may ask himself: Either I am free from all the evils shown? - although the primary goal could be just laugh.

A2. Absence of structure: Intents to bring rules into the arts are not efficient. The arts use all other knowledges; the same product may have both artistic and scientific value.

A3. Wisdom: A painter, a writer, any artists with their works say more, than they planned to say, and more, than they understand by themselves. In this sense, the product of art may be wiser than theauthor.

A4. Entirety: Intents to correct, to improve a product of art destroy it.

A5. Amoralism: Creatures, that have goal to bring some moral to the society, have low artistic value, if at all; the creature may violate any taboo of the society, including the religious ones. There are special sciences about the art.

Aiming the specific application of the classification, the topics of customs and arts are presented here only declaratively.

6. Religions

Knowledge rith some structural elements, canons is qualified as religion. Few general concepts of religion are illustrated in Fig.4:

230950287111242293 BDZ0p3U7 f.jpg 165646 159456387440029 1685699 n.jpg ReligionMasianiaFrag1.jpg

Fig. 4. Religions: Illustrations by S.Tihomirov[31], V.Shmakov[32], O.Kuvaev[33]

CultPutiMili.jpg PopDevil.jpg ChrustifyByYourself.jpg 2015RPCsiniaev14-3-5.jpg 98bda5723e4f3676fe521d8ae83.jpg PopSatana164753.jpg SataanJet.jpg PopSatanaFB.jpg

Religion is kind of the human knowledge, based on some (specific for each religion) set of irrefutable concepts, believes, texts, symbols and performances. [34]

Usually, any religion is characterized in the most of following:

R1. The existence of at least one God is presumed.
R2. There exist canonical sacred text, that allow the humans to guess the will of God(s) and follow it.
R3. God like some actions of human, these actions are called Good.
R4. God dislike some actions of human, these actions are called Evil.
R5. The suggested set of concepts pretends to play an organizing role in the society: following to namely this religion is presumed to provide abilities for the kindness, prudence and wisdom significantly wider, than any other religion.

It this article, God is generic term denoting any intelligent subject that in some way (that is not available for humans) has abilities that greatly exceed those of a human. Actions related to these abilities are called miracles, marvels.

God may look like a human (Jesus Christ, Buddha, Lenin), but also can be “non-material" (God - HolySpirit, World Revolution, Marxism). God may be omnipotent (almighty), invincible, immortal and predicts future:

The Marxist doctrine is omnipotent because it is true. [35]

Long live invincible marxism-leninism-mao tsetung tonight. [36]

Lenin lived, Lenin lives, and Lenin will live. [37]

The generation of those who are now fifteen will see a communist society, and will itself build this society [9]

The immortal beacon of Comrade Stalin will forever illuminate the path on which the Chinese people march forward. [38]

Then he said to Abram, Know for a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, four hundred years, and shall serve them: and they entreat them evil. [39]

World religions, each in their own way, offer a unique set of moral values and rules to guide human beings in their relationship with the environment [40].

Often, such rules are presumed to be truth without limits and alternatives:

The law of the LORD is perfect, restoring the soul; The testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. [41]

Anyone who desires something other than Islam as a religion will never have it accepted from him, while in the Hereafter he will be among the losers. [42]

Some religions do not identify themselves as religions, pretending to be sciences [43][44].

The adepts consider their own belief as the only true concept, deny the dogmatic character of their believes [45] and treat any deviant behavior as crime, heresy and mental illness; the wrong-believers are punished or undergo the forced medical treatment [46][47][48][49].

Some religions justify lies, sacrifices, betrays, massacre, murdering and wars, if they serve the needs of God:

You cannot make revolution in white gloves [50].

Most of religions avoid any refutable concepts. The concept is called refutable, if (and only if) in terms of this concept, some specific observation can be described, that negates the concept. For example, the statement The Current Generation of Soviet People Will Live Under Communism [51] is refutable: based of such a declaration, the next generations (say, since year 1980) may shame, judge, punish, execute the Soviet veterans as liars and impostors; in addition to the punishement for the war crimes, committed since the beginning of the USSR. However, the Sovetism approves and defends any crimes of the Soviet fuhrers with concept You cannot make revolution in white gloves, such a concept justifies any kind of genocide, even if 90% of population are killed with such a slogan [52].

Within few generations after creation of a new religion, it abandons and forgets all its refutable concepts and becomes more stable. Here are the examples of irrefutable concepts:

God blesses America. [53]

Imperialism is evil.[54]

God gives the immortal soul to everyone. [55][56]

The righteous will be at Heaven. [57]

Socialism and communism are the future of Humanity. [58]

However, the last statement becomes refutable (and just wrong) as soon as it is applied to the specific country of century 20, see 1961.ProgramKPSS and "The_Current_Generation_of_Soviet_People_Will_Live_Under_Communism".

The canonical texts of religion describes the marvels, miracles that are specific for each religion. The miracle may refer to the magic conversion of water into vine, to the drastic increase of the efficiency of the production by the inspiration of the Führer, catching of the spies by children, destruction of an army of the enemy tanks by several heroic soldiers launching grenades, etc.. The honest and efficient pray, magia also can be considered as a marvel.

Not all religions pretend to be "the only truth". So-called civil religions recognize themselves as only parts of the human knowledge [59][60][61][62]. Such a recognition makes the civil religions efficient in stabilization of a society on the efficient development, favoring development of prudence, technology and science.

Religions form significant part of the human knowledge and play important role in the human history.
While a religion is tolerant with respect to other kinds of knowledge (and in particular, to other religions), it may assist the prosper development of the society. No one religion can substitute other kinds of knowledge, end even other religions, as one specific science cannot substitute all other sciences.
Any society, where one religion dominates in an aggressive way, becomes barbarian compared to other countries within few generations; the people of such a society lose the ability to analyze the information.


Image-Ridged Mirror figureB.png DimaY2O3ethanol.jpg Av-49230.jpg Doya500.png Tetreal10bx10d.png

Fig.5. How to draw Science? [63], [64], [65], [66]

As it is mentioned in the second section, the term “science" may have different meanings. Following K. Popper, in this article, this term applies only to a refutable knowledge. In order to distinguish science at the background of pseudoscience and religion, the term science should be defined as follows:

Science is kind of knowledge, activity and notations, based on concepts that have all the six properties below:

S1. Applicability: Each concept has the limited range of validity, distinguishable from the empty set.

S2. Verifiability: In the terms of the already accepted concepts, some specific experiment with some specific result, that confirms the concept, can be described.

S3. Refutability: In the terms of the concept, some specific experiment with some specific result, that negates the concept, can be described.

S4. Self-consistency: No internal contradictions of the concept are known.

S5. Principle of correspondence: It the range of validity of a new concept intersects the range of validity of another already accepted concept, then, the new concept either reproduces the results of the old concept, or indicates the way to refute it. (For example, the estimate of the range of validity of the old concept may be wrong.)

S6. Pluralism: Mutually-conflicting concepts may coexist. The coexistence of mutually-conflicting concepts, satisfying requirements S1-S5 above is allowed. If two concepts satisfying S1-S5 havesome common range of validity, then, in this range, the simplest of them has priority and should beconsidered as main, principal.

In the definition of science, all the six properties are compulsory. For example, if the range of validity of a concept is the full set (id est, the concept is valid every time and everywhere), then, by definition, it is not scientific, as it does not satisfy the criterion S1, and there is no need to checkproperties S2-S6 to qualify such a concept as non-scientific.




Competing interests


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  50. V.Lenin. You cannot make revolution in white gloves. (This sentence appears in varioussites, and attributer to Vladimir Lenin. The sites do not indicate the source. Perpaps, the originalarticle by V.Lenin with such a quite is already destroyed; ths practice is described in the novel Orwell1994.
  51. American deseption: Uncovering the deseptive hidden truth. .. Programme_of_The_Communist_Party_of_The_Soviet_Union-19 61-128pgs-POL.sml.pdf The Great October Socialist Revolution ushered in a new era in the history of mankind, the era of the downfall of capitalism and the establishment of communism. Socialism has triumphed in the Soviet Union and has achieved decisive victories in the People's Democracies; socialism has become the practical cause of hundreds of millions of people, and the banner of the revolutionary movement of the working class throughout the world. 300 DPI PDF :: File Size :1.824 MB Download Now..
  52. Georgii Osipov. Vladimir Lenin: You Can’t Make a Revolution Wearing White Gloves 15.11.2017. .. – Mr. Lenin, today as we celebrate the centenary of the October uprising, one of the most important events of the past century, we would be interested to hear directly from you: what was the main goal that you set for yourselves? – We only have one byword, one slogan: everyone who labors has a right to enjoy the advantages of life. The sponges and parasites who suck the blood from the laboring people should be deprived of these advantages. So we proclaim: everything is for the workers, everything is for the laborers! – But haven’t already paid a high price—and don’t we continue to pay one now—for this social experiment? – You can’t make a revolution wearing white gloves. Until there is no violence against the masses, there is no other pathway to power. One must promote the energy and mass-character of terror. Mass searches. Execution for holding weapons. Merciless terror against kulaks, priests, and the White Army. You must lock up suspicious characters in concentration camps. You must execute conspirators and anyone who wavers, asking no questions and allowing for no idiotic red tape. You need to make the people see what you’re doing and tremble for hundreds of kilometers around. Let 90% of the Russian people perish if it allows just 10% to live to see a worldwide revolution. ..
  53. Richard K. Hayes. God Bless America, Land That I Love. Last updated November 8, 2009.
  54. The evil system of colonialism and imperialism. Chinese Cultural Revolution Posters. Description A crowd of African Americans armed with rifles and torches revolts in front of a burning government building. The poster bears a quotation from Mao stating, The evil system of colonialism and imperialism arose and throve with the enslavement of negroes and the trade of negroes, and it will surely come to its end with the complete emancipation of the black people. One of the crowd holds a placard identifying the quote as having been issued on April 16, 1968.
  55. Rabbi David J.B.Krishef. Do all of you believe that everyone has an immortal soul? 1/22/19 01:00pm.
  56. Wayne Jackson. Do Human Beings Have an Immortal Soul? July 4, 2020.
  57. / Bible Study Tools / Booklets / Heaven and Hell: What Does the Bible Really Teach? / Is Heaven God's Reward for the Righteous? (2020) .. The Westminster Confession of Faith, written in the 17th century, states: “The bodies of men after death return to dust, and see corruption; but their souls, (which never die nor sleep,) having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them. The souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies.” .. The view that a person’s soul goes to heaven at death—though held by many in good faith—cannot be found in the Bible. ..
  58. Jerónimo de Sousa. «It is with the deep conviction that socialism and communism are the future of Humanity that we pursue our struggle» 8 November 2017, Lisbon.
  59. Fujihara Masahiko. The dignity of the nation. Tokyo. 2007. (No online version is founr)
  60. Mathisen J.A. Twenty Years After Bellah: Whatever Happened to American Civil Religion? Journal article by James A. Mathisen; SA. Sociological Analysis, 50 1989, pp. 129-146. Published: 01 July 1989
  61. Carolyn Marvin and David W.Ingle. Blood Sacri ce and the Nation: Revisiting Civil Religion Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 64, No.4, Thematic Issue on \Religion and American Popular Culture" (1996), pp. 767-780.
  62. Robert N. Bellah, Phillip E. Hammond. Varieties of Civil Religion. New York: Harper & Row. 1980.
  63. D.Kouznetsov, H.Oberst. Scattering of waves at ridged mirrors. PRA, volume 72, pages 013617 (2005)


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