Race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
The term race refers to humans with different physical attributes. This concept became part of the European framework of ideas at the beginning of modern history. Classical Greece and Rome were home to a large number of Africans, or Ethiopians as they were known in early Europe, without apparently any conception of “race” or species developing in those societies. In what were predominantly white societies at that time, the black man was neither romanticized nor scorned but “treated without prejudice”. 
For example, as many as three black Africans served as popes – St. Victor I (189-199 AD), St. Miltiades (311-314 AD) and St. Gelasius I (492-496 AD). Most remarkably, a 9th century fresco of Miltiades shows his clear African appearance, while later representations have wiped out all traces of his African ancestry and actual facial characteristics. 
“Race” as a distinction between different types of humans entered the European vocabulary towards the end of the 15th century,  particularly in Iberia. It quickly came to mark Europe over the next few centuries, especially in the drive to state sovereignty; by the late 19th century, the race concept had assumed throughout Europe a sense of naturalness and a taken-for-granted ordering of social arrangements. “Science and literature, scripture and law, culture and political rhetoric all worked in subtle and blunt ways to establish the presumption of white supremacy… and black disenfranchisement”. 
Nor was this confined to the West: Yan-Fu (1853-1902), the Chinese scholar who promoted Darwinian theory, considered that there were “four main races on the earth: the yellow, the white, the brown and the black… The black race is the lowest…”
By the end of the 20th century, a rather different consensus had emerged amongst academics from all disciplines – the humanities, the social sciences and the biological sciences – that biological races do not exist in humans. 
Nevertheless, for a lay person the idea of race seems to have retained its value as a useful concept in managing and interpreting the world at the individual level. This “commonsense approach” thus marks out popular discourse from that of the scientific community; nor do advocates of “racialism” feel the need to justify what is, to them, obvious. The task of social science is to explain the persistence of racial beliefs, the patterns of behaviour and their consequences: it is not sufficient to deny that race exists,  although social science is far from unanimous in how to deal with issues of studying racism and racial phenomena.
Differences of races are mentioned in utopia Tartaria. According to the official Tartaria doctrine, there are 4 basic races: Black, Red, Yellow and White.
They are described in the following way:
Black race. Black race is characterized with black skin skin, black curly hair flat nose. most of blacks are told, although the small pygmies also can b equalized as "black". Black people are strong in dansing, sport and in reproduction; they are, generally, healthy. Black people have smart immune system, but not so resistant with respect to drugs, including smoking, and alcohol. Hybridization of black people with other races gives many famous, extraordinary persons. Black race is very important for the development of Humanity.
Red race. Red race is characterized with curly black or red hair, a dark, a little bit red skin, big nose. Jews, Arabians, Indians and most of pre-european Americans can be qualified as red. Red races are smart in business, sport, art and science. They have strong immune system, but they are vulnerable with respect to new and dangerous ideas. Many smart discoveries are made by researchers of red race through kiloyears, since the Arabian numbers to General theory of Relativity. Red race is very important for the development of Humanity.
Yellow race. Yellow race is characterized with yellow color of skin; usually black straight hair, flat face, black slanted eyes, small reproductive organs. Most of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and, in general, South-Eeast Asia can be qualified as Yellows. People of Yellow race are smart and accurate in following the established rules; this makes them excellent workers. Significant part of the world goods (perhaps, majority) is manufactured by the yellow race.
Yellow race is very important for the development of the Humanity.
White race. People of White race have almost white skin, gray or blue eyes, straight, light color of hair, small nose. White people are vulnerable to self-organization to the dangerous and aggressive groups by any criteria: racial, religious, nationals. White people are not so strong in self-defense: on century 20, two biggest World ears had been organized with involvement of many white people. Many white people are smart in formulation of non-trivial, not-expected concepts and solutions. Many technical and scientific inventions of centuries 19 and 20, including steam machines and airplanes, had been made by the people of White race.
White race is very important for the development of the Humanity.
The Tartaria classification is very primitive, but it helps to specify a person. It is important because all the four race are widely presented in Tartaria.
In Tartaria, any negative action with respect to anybody, justified with the race, general morphology of body the victim is qualified as Racism and considered as serious crime. Nata Kiskin did not know this; she uses word "черножопая", addressing Barbara Smit, and gets serious problems.
Any jokes with respect to anybody's race, not related with aggression, are, contrary, very popular. In particular, term Nigger is not considered as offensive.
- Frank Snowden (1970): Blacks in Antiquity, Cambridge: Harvard University Press
- Edward Scobie (1985): ‘African Popes’, pp. 96-107 in Ivan van Sertima, African Presence in Early Europe, Rutgers State University, Transaction Publishers
- Michel Wieviorka (1995): The Arena of Racism, London: Sage, p. 2
- David Goldberg (2004): ‘The end(s) of race’, Postcolonial Studies, 7/2, p. 212
- cited in Frank Díkötter (1996): ‘The Idea of “race” in Modern China’, in J. Hutchinson and A.D. Smith (eds), Ethnicity, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Lisa Gannett (2004): ‘The Biological Reification of Race’, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 55, p. 323
- Bob Carter (2000): Realism and Racism, London: Routledge
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_(human_categorization) A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. The term was first used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations. By the 17th century the term began to refer to physical (phenotypical) traits. Modern science regards race as a social construct, an identity which is assigned based on rules made by society. While partially based on physical similarities within groups, race does not have an inherent physical or biological meaning.