Difference between revisions of "Richard Van Evera Lovelace"

From TORI
Jump to: navigation, search
(Pulsars and Neutron stars)
 
(147 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
<div style="float:right;width:160px">
+
<div style="float:right;width:260px">
<div style="width:180px">
+
<div style="width:260px">
[[File:Lovelace-1.jpg|200px]]
+
[[File:Lovelace-1.jpg|280px]] <p style="text-align:center">
[[Richard Van Evera Lovelace]]
+
[[Richard Van Evera Lovelace]]</p>
 
</div></div>
 
</div></div>
   
[[Richard Van Evera Lovelace]] is an American astrophysicist and plasma physicist. Lovelace is the best known for discovery of period of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar pulsar] in the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Nebula Crab Nebula] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Pulsar Crab pulsar]), which helped to prove that pulsars are rotating https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star [[neutron stars]], for developing a magnetic model of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrophysical_jet[[jets from galaxies]], and for developing a model of
+
[[Richard Van Evera Lovelace]] (1941.10.16, St. Louis, USA) is astrophysicist and plasma physicist. Lovelace is best known for the discovery of the period of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar pulsar] in the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Nebula Crab Nebula] ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Pulsar Crab pulsar]), which helped to prove that pulsars are rotating [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star neutron stars], for developing a magnetic model of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrophysical_jet jets from galaxies], and for developing a model of
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rossby_wave#:~:text=Rossby%20waves%2C%20also%20known%20as,the%20rotation%20of%20the%20planet.[[Rossby waves]] in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accretion_disk[[accretion disks]]. He organized the http://hosting.astro.cornell.edu/us-russia/index.html{US-Russia collaboration in Plasma Astrophysics}, which obtained many pioneering results in modeling of plasma accretion and outflows from magnetized rotating stars.
+
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rossby_wave#:~:text=Rossby%20waves%2C%20also%20known%20as,the%20rotation%20of%20the%20planet. Rossby waves] in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accretion_disk accretion disks]. He organized the [http://hosting.astro.cornell.edu/us-russia/index.html US-Russia collaboration in Plasma Astrophysics], which obtained many pioneering results in modeling of plasma accretion and outflows from magnetized rotating stars.
 
   
 
==Early life==
 
==Early life==
   
Lovelace was born in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis[[Saint Louis]] on October 16, 1941. His father, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eldridge_Lovelace[[Eldridge Lovelace]], was a city planner, and had frequent travels to cities in the US and abroad. He often took his family with him, and Richard visited many places in the US and other countries. Father was also a specialist in parks and an artist, so that they visited many parks, museums and art galleries. Richard's mother Marjorie Van Evera Lovelace, liked to write. She wrote a book about family trips and other stories: https://www.amazon.com/Marjorie-Remembers-Writings-Evera-Lovelace/dp/B001D0OUBQ[[``Marjorie Remembers'']].
+
Lovelace was born in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis Saint Louis] on October 16, 1941. His father, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eldridge_Lovelace Eldridge Lovelace], was a city planner, and had frequent travels to cities in the US and abroad. He often took his family with him, and Richard visited many places in the US and other countries. Father was also a specialist in parks and an artist, so that they visited many parks, museums and art galleries. Richard's mother Marjorie Van Evera Lovelace, liked to write. She wrote a book about family trips and other stories: [https://www.amazon.com/Marjorie-Remembers-Writings-Evera-Lovelace/dp/B001D0OUBQ ``Marjorie Remembers''].
   
Richard went to \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Burroughs_School}{John Burroughs school}, where he showed talent in physics and math. He collected in a home lab different electronic equipment, and developed \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio}{radios}, etc. He was interested in the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_exploration}[[space program]]. In 1957, he observed the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_1}{Soviet Sputnik}, passing over \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis}{Saint Louis}, and together with parents, he went to \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida}{Florida} to observe the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_spaceflights,_1961%E2%80%931970[[first launches of American spacecrafts]].
+
Richard went to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Burroughs_School John Burroughs school], where he showed talent in physics and math. He collected in a home lab different electronic equipment, and developed [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio radios], etc. He was interested in the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_exploration space program]. In 1957, he observed the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_1 Soviet Sputnik], passing over [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis Saint Louis], and together with parents, he went to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida Florida] to observe the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_spaceflights,_1961%E2%80%931970 first launches of American spacecrafts].
   
  +
==Education==
   
  +
Lovelace attended the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnegie_Mellon_University Carnegie Tech] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_University_in_St._Louis Washington University (St. Louis)], and in 1964 he received a Bachelor degree from Washington University. He was a graduate student at [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornell_University Cornell University], and obtained PhD in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics Physics] in 1970 working under Prof. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Ernest_Salpeter E. E. Salpeter].
   
==Career==
 
   
  +
==Discovery of the Crab Pulsar period==
Lovelace was Professor at \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornell_University}{Cornell University} from 1972 to 2020. He was Professor in the \href{https://www.aep.cornell.edu/aep}{Department of the Applied and Engineering Physics} and the \href{https://astro.cornell.edu/}{Astronomy Department}.
 
He has been teaching different classes for undergraduate and graduate students. For the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_mechanics}{“Continuum Physics”} class, he developed a suite of 14 demonstrations including a \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venturi_effect}{Venturi tube} and a smoke-ring generator. See an example of experiment with fluids here inhomogeneities in rotating fluid \href{https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOOSyDw5jYw&t=72s}{here}. With one of the students, Greg Stein, he has written a book ``Fluid Flows'' . He has taught for many years the graduate E \& M course on Applied Electrodynamics.
 
Lovelace was Director of Master of Engineering Program 1991--2000.
 
Awarded for Excellence in Teaching Prize from the \href{https://www.tbp.org/home.cfm}{Engineering Honor Society Tau Beta Pi}, 1988.
 
Lovelace was a member of the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell_Prize_for_Plasma_Physics}{Maxwell prize} committee of the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Physical_Society}{American Physical
 
Society} 2009-2011. He was a member of the Advisory board of the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guggenheim_Fellowship}{Guggenheim Foundation}, 1994-2005.
 
Referee of \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_Review_Letters}{Physical Review Letters}, \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics_of_Plasmas}{Physics of Plasmas}, Astrophysical Journal, MNRAS, Astronomy and Astrophysics 1972--2020.
 
Divisional Associate Editor, \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_Review_Letters}{Physical Review Letters}, 1997-2000. Associate Editor for Physics of Plasmas, 2003-2019.
 
Editorial board member: \href{https://comp-astrophys-cosmol.springeropen.com/}{Journal of Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology}, 2010 - present.
 
   
  +
As a graduate student, Lovelace went to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory Arecibo observatory], where he developed a special [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Fourier_transform fast-Fourier transform] program.<ref name="Lovelace1969">[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1969Natur.222..231L/abstract ``Digital Search Methods for Pulsars''] 1969, R. V. E. Lovelace, J. M. Sutton, E. E. Salpeter Nature 222 (5190), 231-233</ref>.
In 1991, he started the US-Russia Collaboration in Plasma Astrophysics. This collaboration helped to
 
  +
The special code named Gallop in Fortran was adapted to run on the Arecibo Observatory's CDC 3200 computer which had a memory of 32,000 words of 24 bit length. The code was integer based using half-words of 12 bits and was able to do the fast Fourier transform of N=16,384 signal samples. The 8192 signal power values were printed out on a folded raster scan. The signal to noise ratio increases as N increases. This was the largest value of N which could be handled by the Arecibo computer.
achieve many pioneering results in science. This is the only \href{http://hosting.astro.cornell.edu/us-russia/index.html}{US-Russian collaboration in plasma astrophysics}.
 
  +
This program helped to separate the periodic pulsar signal from the noise, and one night he discovered the period of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Pulsar Crab pulsar], which is approximately 33 ms (33.09 ms) <ref name = "Comella1969">
In 2000, he initiated the \href{http://hosting.astro.cornell.edu/research/projects/us-kaz/}{US-Kazakhstan Astrophysics Collaboration}, which greatly helped scientists of \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakhstan}{Kazakhstan}, 2000--2004.
 
  +
[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1969Natur.221..453C/abstract ``Crab nebula pulsar NP 0532''] 1969, J. M. Comella, H. D. Craft, R. V. E. Lovelace, J. M. Sutton, G. L. Tyler Nature 221 (5179), 453-454</ref>.
  +
This was the fastest [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar pulsar] found at that time. After this discovery, scientists concluded that [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar pulsars] were rotating [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star neutron stars]<ref name="LovelaceTyler2012">[http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/2012Obs...132..186L "On the discovery of the period of the Crab Nebula pulsar"] 2012, R. V. E. Lovelace and G. L. Tyler, The Observatory 132, 186–187</ref>. Before that, many scientists believed that pulsars were pulsating [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_dwarf white dwarfs].
   
==Research==
+
==Career==
   
  +
-- Lovelace is Professor at [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornell_University Cornell University] from 1972. He is Professor in the [https://www.aep.cornell.edu/aep Department of the Applied and Engineering Physics] and the [https://astro.cornell.edu/ Astronomy Department].
1. In 1969, Lovelace discovered the period of the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Pulsar}{Crab Nebula pulsar}, which is about P=33 ms \cite{Lovelace1969,LovelaceTyler2012}. He developed a special fast-Fourier transform program, which helped to separate the period from the noise. After this discovery, scientists concluded that pulsars are rotating neutron stars. Before that, many scientists believed that pulsars are pulsating white dwarfs. After discovering such a rapidly rotating star it become clear that it had to be a rotating neutron star.
 
   
  +
-- Fellow of American Physical Society, 2002
2. Proposed a model of jets from disks surrounding massive \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole}{black holes} in galaxies \cite{Lovelace1976}. The model is based on the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamo_theory}{dynamo mechanism} acting in the magnetized accretion disk surrounding a black hole or other gravitating object. The model has been widely accepted by the astronomical community and now is the main model explaining jets from galaxies, stars and planets.
 
   
  +
-- Orsan Anderson Visiting Scholar at Los Alamos National Laboratory 1999-2000
3. For the first time, suggested that \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rossby_wave}{Rossby waves} (observed in atmospheres of \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_planet#:~:text=There%20are%20four%20known%20giant,Roman%20god%20%22Jupiter%22).}{giant planets}, such as the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Red_Spot}{great red spot} at \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter}{Jupiter}) are important in astrophysical accretion disks (e.g., \cite{LovelaceEtAl1999},\cite{LovelaceRomanova2014}). These waves form \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vortex}{vorticies} in accretion discs, where dust particles accumulate and are probable places for formation of planets (e.g., \cite{LovelaceRomanova2014}).
 
   
  +
-- Lifetime Fellow at [[Churchill College,_Cambridge] University and Visiting Scientist at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge England, 1994-1995
4. Developed the theory of the stability of electron and ion rings (e.g., \cite{Lovelace1969}).
 
The theory is used in the current laboratory experiments on the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_confinement_fusion}{magnetic confinement fusion} (e.g., in the \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TAE_Technologies}{TAE Technologies} in \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California}{California}).
 
   
  +
-- Guggenheim Fellow and Visiting Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, 1990-1991
   
  +
-- Lovelace has been teaching different classes for undergraduate and graduate students. For the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_mechanics “Continuum Physics”] class, he developed a suite of 14 demonstrations including a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venturi_effect Venturi tube] and a smoke-ring generator. See an example of experiment with fluids here inhomogeneities in rotating fluid [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOOSyDw5jYw&t=72s here]. With one of the students, Greg Stein, he has written a book ``Fluid Flows''. He has taught for many years the graduate
==Other Scientific Achievements==
 
  +
course on Applied Electrodynamics.
  +
Lovelace was Director of Master of Engineering Program 1991--2000.
  +
Awarded for Excellence in Teaching Prize from the [https://www.tbp.org/home.cfm Engineering Honor Society Tau Beta Pi], 1988.
   
  +
-- Lovelace was a member of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell_Prize_for_Plasma_Physics Maxwell prize] committee of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Physical_Society American Physical
  +
Society] 2009-2011.
   
  +
-- He was a member of the Advisory board of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guggenheim_Fellowship Guggenheim Foundation], 1994-2005.
   
  +
-- Divisional Associate Editor, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_Review_Letters Physical Review Letters], 1997-2000. Associate Editor of Physics of Plasmas, 2003-2019. Editorial board member: [https://comp-astrophys-cosmol.springeropen.com/ Journal of Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology], 2010 - present.
   
  +
-- In 1991, he started the US-Russia Collaboration in Plasma Astrophysics. This collaboration helped to
  +
achieve many pioneering results in science. This is the only [http://hosting.astro.cornell.edu/us-russia/index.html US-Russian collaboration in plasma astrophysics].
   
  +
-- In 2000, he initiated the [http://hosting.astro.cornell.edu/research/projects/us-kaz/ US-Kazakhstan Astrophysics Collaboration], which greatly helped scientists of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakhstan Kazakhstan].
-- Proposed a new method of measuring magnetic fields. Patent: United States Patent 6,639,403 A. Temnykh, and R. V. E. Lovelace, October 28, 2003 ``System and method for sensing magnetic fields based on movement''.
 
   
  +
==Research==
-- Developed pioneering theory of intense ion beams in pulsed diodes, which are currently used in laboratories.
 
``Generation of intense ion beams in pulsed diodes''. Publication: R. N. Sudan, and R. V. Lovelace 1973,
 
Physical Review Letters 31 (19), 1174.
 
   
  +
1. In 1969, Lovelace discovered period \(P\!\approx 33\) ms of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Pulsar Crab Nebula pulsar] <ref name = "Comella1969">
-- Proposed the theory of magnetic insulation. The theory is continuously used in laboratories, for example in Sandia National Laboratory. Publication: ``Theory of magnetic insulation''
 
  +
[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1969Natur.221..453C/abstract ``Crab nebula pulsar NP 0532''] 1969, J. M. Comella, H. D. Craft, R. V. E. Lovelace, J. M. Sutton, G. L. Tyler Nature 221 (5179), 453-454</ref>.
R. V. Lovelace, E. Ott 1974, The Physics of Fluids 17 (6), 1263-1268.
 
   
-- Invented trapping mechanism of spin-polarized neutral gas. The mechanism has been experimentally demonstrated. Publications: ``Magnetic confinement of a neutral gas''
 
R. V. E. Lovelace, C. Mehanian, T. J. Tommila, D. M. Lee 1985,
 
Nature 318 (6041), 30-36; ~ D. Thompson, R. V. E. Lovelace, D. M. Lee ``Storage rings for spin polarized hydrogen'' 1989, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 611.
 
   
  +
2. Proposed a model of jets from disks surrounding massive [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole black holes] in galaxies
-- Developed theory and simulations of scintillations in the interstellar medium.
 
  +
<ref name="Lovelace1976">[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Natur.262..649L/abstract "Dynamo model of double radio sources"] R. V. E. Lovelace 1976, ''Nature'' 262 (5570), 649-652.</ref>. The model is based on the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamo_theory dynamo mechanism] acting in the magnetized accretion disk surrounding a black hole or other gravitating object. The model has been widely accepted by the astronomical community and now is the main model explaining jets from galaxies, stars and planets.
``Refractive and diffractive scattering in the interstellar medium''
 
J. M. Cordes, A Pidwerbetsky, R. V. E. Lovelace
 
The Astrophysical Journal 310, 737-767.
 
   
  +
3. Proposed the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rossby_wave Rossby waves] instability in
-- Discovered the Kolmogoroff nature of the turbulence in the Solar wind. Publication: R. V. E. Lovelace, E. E. Salpeter, L. E. Sharp, \& D. E. Harries ``Analysis of observations of interplanetary scintillations'' 1970, ApJ, 159, p. 1047
 
  +
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accretion_disk accretion disks]<ref name="LovelaceEtAl1999">
  +
[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApJ...513..805L/abstract ``Rossby wave instability of Keplerian accretion disks''] R. V. E. Lovelace, H. Li, S. A. Colgate, A. F. Nelson 1999, The Astrophysical Journal 513 (2), 805.</ref>.
  +
These waves form anti-cyclonic [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vortex vorticies] in accretion discs, where dust particles accumulate and form planets <ref name="LovelaceRomanova2014">[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FlDyR..46d1401L/abstract ``Rossby wave instability in astrophysical discs''] R. V. E. Lovelace & M. M. Romanova, Fluid Dynamics Research, v. 46, p. 041401.</ref>.
   
  +
4. Developed the theory of the stability of electron and ion rings (e.g.,
-- In collaboration with Russian mathematicians, developed a global, three-dimensional numerical model of the disk-accreting magnetized stars. The model is unique and does not have an analogy in the world. Many pioneering results were obtained with this 3D MHD model.
 
  +
<ref name="Lovelace1975">[https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.162 ``Low-frequency stability of astron configurations'']
This problem is important in astrophysics, because a wide variety of stars have significant magnetic fields (young stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars), and their observational properties depend on the disk-magnetosphere interaction. One of key papers:
 
  +
R. V. E. Lovelace 1975, Physical Review Letters 35 (3), 162-164.</ref>).
``Three-dimensional simulations of disk accretion to an inclined dipole. II. Hot spots and variability'' ,
 
  +
The theory is used in the current laboratory experiments on the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_confinement_fusion magnetic confinement fusion] (e.g., in the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TAE_Technologies TAE Technologies] in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California California]).
M. M. Romanova, G. V. Ustyugova, A. V. Koldoba, R. V. E. Lovelace 2004,
 
The Astrophysical Journal 610 (2), 920.
 
   
  +
==Other Scientific Achievements==
-- Provided the first estimate of the electric current in the astrophysical jet: $3\times 10^{18}$ Amps. Publication: ``Measurement of the electric current in a kpc-scale jet'', P. P. Kronberg, R. V. E. Lovelace, G. Lapenta, and S. A. Colgate 2011, ApJ Letters 741, L15.
 
   
  +
<p style="line-height:12px">
  +
-- Proposed a new method of measuring magnetic fields <ref name=TemnykhLovelace=2003>[https://patents.google.com/patent/US6639403B2/en ``System and method for sensing magnetic fields based on movement''] Patent: United States Patent 6,639,403 A. Temnykh, and R. V. E. Lovelace, October 28, 2003.</ref>.
  +
</p>
   
  +
<p style="line-height:11px">
==Travels to Siberia==
 
  +
-- Developed pioneering theory of intense [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_beam#:~:text=An%20ion%20beam%20is%20a,by%20NASA%20in%20the%201960s. ion beams] in pulsed diodes, which are currently used in laboratories
  +
<ref name=SudanLovelace1973>[https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.31.1174 ``Generation of intense ion beams in pulsed diodes'']. R. N. Sudan, and R. V. Lovelace 1973,
  +
Physical Review Letters 31 (19), 1174.</ref>.
  +
</p>
   
  +
<p style="line-height:11px">
  +
-- Proposed the theory of magnetic insulation. The theory is used in laboratories, for example in Sandia National Laboratory <ref name=Lovelace1974>[https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.1694876 ``Theory of magnetic insulation'']
  +
R. V. Lovelace, E. Ott 1974, The Physics of Fluids 17 (6), 1263-1268.</ref>.
  +
</p>
   
  +
<p style="line-height:11px">
Richard liked to travel in \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberia}{Siberia}. He climbed \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altay}{Altay} and \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayan_Mountains}{Sayani} mountains, visited \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakha}{Yakuiya} and \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Baikal}{Lake Baikal}, climbed \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avachinsky}{Avachinsky} and \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutnovsky}{Mutnovsky} volcanos of \href{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamchatka_Peninsula}{Kamchatka}.
 
  +
-- Invented trapping mechanism of spin-polarized neutral gas. The mechanism has been experimentally demonstrated. <ref name=LovelaceEtAl1985>[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Natur.318...30L/abstract ``Magnetic confinement of a neutral gas'']
  +
R. V. E. Lovelace, C. Mehanian, T. J. Tommila, D. M. Lee 1985,
  +
Nature 318 (6041), 30-36 </ref><ref name=ThompsonEtAl1989>[https://www.osapublishing.org/josab/abstract.cfm?uri=josab-6-11-2227 ``Storage rings for spin polarized hydrogen''] D. Thompson, R. V. E. Lovelace, D. M. Lee 1989, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 611.</ref>.
  +
</p>
   
  +
<p style="line-height:11px">
  +
-- Developed theory and simulations of scintillations in the interstellar medium
  +
<ref name=CordesEtAl1986>[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1986ApJ...310..737C ``Refractive and diffractive scattering in the interstellar medium'']
  +
J. M. Cordes, A Pidwerbetsky, R. V. E. Lovelace
  +
The Astrophysical Journal 310, 737-767.</ref>.
  +
</p>
   
  +
<p style="line-height:11px">
==References==
 
  +
-- Discovered the Kolmogoroff nature of the turbulence in the Solar wind <ref name=LovelaceEtAl1970>[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1970ApJ...159.1047L ``Analysis of observations of interplanetary scintillations''] R. V. E. Lovelace, E. E. Salpeter, L. E. Sharp, & D. E. Harries 1970, ApJ, 159, p. 1047.</ref>.
  +
</p>
   
  +
<p style="line-height:11px">
  +
-- In collaboration with Russian mathematicians, developed a global, three-dimensional numerical model of the disk-accreting magnetized stars. Many pioneering results were obtained with this 3D MHD model (e.g., <ref name=RomanovaEtAl2004>
  +
[http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/us-russia/pdf/spots.pdf ``Three-dimensional simulations of disk accretion to an inclined dipole. II. Hot spots and variability''],
  +
M. M. Romanova, G. V. Ustyugova, A. V. Koldoba, R. V. E. Lovelace 2004,
  +
The Astrophysical Journal 610 (2), 920.</ref>.)
  +
</p>
   
  +
<p style="line-height:11px">
\bibitem{Lovelace1969}
 
  +
-- Provided the first estimate of the electric current in the astrophysical jet:<math> 3\times 10^{18}</math> Amps. <ref name=KronbergEtAl2011>[https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/741/1/L15/pdf ``Measurement of the electric current in a kpc-scale jet''], P. P. Kronberg, R. V. E. Lovelace, G. Lapenta, and S. A. Colgate 2011, ApJ Letters 741, L15.</ref>.
http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/2012Obs...132..186L/0000186.000.html <ref>
 
  +
</p></small>
{``Crab nebula pulsar NP 0532''} 1969, J. M. Comella, H. D. Craft, R. V. E. Lovelace, J. M. Sutton, G. L. Tyler Nature 221 (5179), 453-454.
 
   
  +
==Travels to Siberia==
\bibitem{LovelaceTyler2012}
 
\href{http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/2012Obs...132..186L}
 
{``On the discovery of the period of the Crab Nebula pulsar''} R. V. E. Lovelace and G. L. Tyler 2012, The Observatory, 132, 186.
 
   
  +
Richard liked to travel in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberia Siberia]. He climbed [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altay Altay] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayan_Mountains Sayani] mountains, visited [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakha Yakuiya] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Baikal Lake Baikal], climbed [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avachinsky Avachinsky] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutnovsky Mutnovsky] volcanos of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamchatka_Peninsula Kamchatka].
\bibitem{Lovelace1976}
 
\href{https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Natur.262..649L/abstract}
 
{``Dynamo model of double radio sources''}
 
R. V. E. Lovelace 1976, Nature 262 (5570), 649-652.
 
   
  +
<p style="margin-left:-20px;margin-right:-20px; text-align:center; test-height:11pt">
\bibitem{LovelaceEtAl1999}
 
  +
[[File:Kamch 201-400.jpg|290px]]
\href{https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApJ...513..805L/abstract}{``Rossby wave instability of Keplerian accretion disks''} R. V. E. Lovelace, H. Li, S. A. Colgate, A. F. Nelson 1999, The Astrophysical Journal 513 (2), 805.
 
  +
[[File:Kamch 222.jpg|250px]]
  +
[[File:Kamch 226.jpg|365px]]<br><small>
  +
Richard at Kamchatka. First picture: Near [[Avachinsky volcano]]. Second and third pictures: Climbing
  +
[[Avachinsky volcano]]. Third picture: [[Koryaksky volcano]] at background.
  +
</small>
  +
</p>
   
\bibitem{LovelaceRomanova2014}
 
\href{https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FlDyR..46d1401L/abstract}{``Rossby wave instability in astrophysical discs''} R. V. E. Lovelace \&
 
M. M. Romanova, Fluid Dynamics Research, v. 46, p. 041401.
 
 
\bibitem{Lovelace1969}
 
\href{}{``Low-frequency stability of astron configurations''}
 
R. V. E. Lovelace 1969, Physical Review Letters 35 (3), 162.
 
 
 
 
[[Richard Lovelace]] ([[]]) is astrophysicist at the Cornell University
 
<ref>
 
https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=1z8aNPIAAAAJ
 
Richard VE Lovelace
 
Professor, Departments of Astronomy and Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University. (2020)
 
</ref>.
 
 
==[[Pulsar]]s and [[Neutron stars]]==
 
 
1969, Lovelace and his coauthors suggest interpretation of the already discovered [[pulsar]] ([[Crab nebula pulsar NP 0532]]) as rotating [[neutorn star]]s,
 
that emit narrow beam of radiowaves.<ref>
 
[https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1038/221453a0.pdf Crab nebula pulsar NP 0532]
 
J.M.Comella, H.D.Craft, R.V.E.Lovelace, J.M.Sutton, G.Leonard Tyler
 
Nature Volume 221 Issue 5179 Pages 453-454
 
Publication date 1969/2/1
 
BECAUSE of the conjecture that pulsars are neutron stars, which are possibly produced in supernova events, the possible association of pulsars with supernova remnants is of great interest. Staelin and Reifenstein recently reported1 the discovery of two pulsed radio sources near the Crab nebula, which is the remnant of the supernova observed by the Chinese in AD 1054. Pulses from both sources were described as very sporadic, and no periodic phenomena were evident.
 
</ref>
 
Soon after his suggestion, such an interpretation had been confirmed
 
<ref>
 
Private communication. 2020.
 
</ref>
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star
 
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a massive supergiant star, which had a total mass of between 10 and 25 solar masses, possibly more if the star was especially metal-rich.[1] Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stellar objects, excluding black holes and hypothetical white holes, quark stars, and strange stars.[2] Neutron stars have a radius on the order of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and a mass of about 1.4 solar masses.[3] They result from the supernova explosion of a massive star, combined with gravitational collapse, that compresses the core past white dwarf star density to that of atomic nuclei.
 
 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar
 
A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar)[1] is a highly magnetized rotating compact star (usually neutron stars but also white dwarfs) that emits beams of electromagnetic radiation out of its magnetic poles.[2] This radiation can be observed only when a beam of emission is pointing toward Earth (much like the way a lighthouse can be seen only when the light is pointed in the direction of an observer), and is responsible for the pulsed appearance of emission. Neutron stars are very dense, and have short, regular rotational periods. This produces a very precise interval between pulses that ranges from milliseconds to seconds for an individual pulsar. Pulsars are one of the candidates for the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (see also centrifugal mechanism of acceleration). //
 
The periods of pulsars make them very useful tools for astronomers. Observations of a pulsar in a binary neutron star system were used to indirectly confirm the existence of gravitational radiation. The first extrasolar planets were discovered around a pulsar, PSR B1257+12. In 1983, certain types of pulsars were detected that at that time exceeded atomic clocks in their accuracy in keeping time.[3]
 
   
 
==Keywords==
 
==Keywords==
   
[[Cornell Univercity]],
+
[[Cornell University]],
 
[[Ion ring]],
 
[[Ion ring]],
 
[[Neutron star]],
 
[[Neutron star]],
Line 161: Line 151:
 
[[Category:Richard Lovelace]]
 
[[Category:Richard Lovelace]]
 
[[Category:Scholar]]
 
[[Category:Scholar]]
[[Category:Stub]]
+
[[Category:USA]]

Latest revision as of 14:10, 27 January 2021

Richard Van Evera Lovelace (1941.10.16, St. Louis, USA) is astrophysicist and plasma physicist. Lovelace is best known for the discovery of the period of pulsar in the Crab Nebula (Crab pulsar), which helped to prove that pulsars are rotating neutron stars, for developing a magnetic model of jets from galaxies, and for developing a model of Rossby waves in accretion disks. He organized the US-Russia collaboration in Plasma Astrophysics, which obtained many pioneering results in modeling of plasma accretion and outflows from magnetized rotating stars.

Early life

Lovelace was born in Saint Louis on October 16, 1941. His father, Eldridge Lovelace, was a city planner, and had frequent travels to cities in the US and abroad. He often took his family with him, and Richard visited many places in the US and other countries. Father was also a specialist in parks and an artist, so that they visited many parks, museums and art galleries. Richard's mother Marjorie Van Evera Lovelace, liked to write. She wrote a book about family trips and other stories: ``Marjorie Remembers.

Richard went to John Burroughs school, where he showed talent in physics and math. He collected in a home lab different electronic equipment, and developed radios, etc. He was interested in the space program. In 1957, he observed the Soviet Sputnik, passing over Saint Louis, and together with parents, he went to Florida to observe the first launches of American spacecrafts.

Education

Lovelace attended the Carnegie Tech and Washington University (St. Louis), and in 1964 he received a Bachelor degree from Washington University. He was a graduate student at Cornell University, and obtained PhD in Physics in 1970 working under Prof. E. E. Salpeter.


Discovery of the Crab Pulsar period

As a graduate student, Lovelace went to Arecibo observatory, where he developed a special fast-Fourier transform program.[1]. The special code named Gallop in Fortran was adapted to run on the Arecibo Observatory's CDC 3200 computer which had a memory of 32,000 words of 24 bit length. The code was integer based using half-words of 12 bits and was able to do the fast Fourier transform of N=16,384 signal samples. The 8192 signal power values were printed out on a folded raster scan. The signal to noise ratio increases as N increases. This was the largest value of N which could be handled by the Arecibo computer. This program helped to separate the periodic pulsar signal from the noise, and one night he discovered the period of the Crab pulsar, which is approximately 33 ms (33.09 ms) [2]. This was the fastest pulsar found at that time. After this discovery, scientists concluded that pulsars were rotating neutron stars[3]. Before that, many scientists believed that pulsars were pulsating white dwarfs.

Career

-- Lovelace is Professor at Cornell University from 1972. He is Professor in the Department of the Applied and Engineering Physics and the Astronomy Department.

-- Fellow of American Physical Society, 2002

-- Orsan Anderson Visiting Scholar at Los Alamos National Laboratory 1999-2000

-- Lifetime Fellow at [[Churchill College,_Cambridge] University and Visiting Scientist at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge England, 1994-1995

-- Guggenheim Fellow and Visiting Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, 1990-1991

-- Lovelace has been teaching different classes for undergraduate and graduate students. For the “Continuum Physics” class, he developed a suite of 14 demonstrations including a Venturi tube and a smoke-ring generator. See an example of experiment with fluids here inhomogeneities in rotating fluid here. With one of the students, Greg Stein, he has written a book ``Fluid Flows. He has taught for many years the graduate course on Applied Electrodynamics. Lovelace was Director of Master of Engineering Program 1991--2000. Awarded for Excellence in Teaching Prize from the Engineering Honor Society Tau Beta Pi, 1988.

-- Lovelace was a member of the Maxwell prize committee of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Physical_Society American Physical Society] 2009-2011.

-- He was a member of the Advisory board of the Guggenheim Foundation, 1994-2005.

-- Divisional Associate Editor, Physical Review Letters, 1997-2000. Associate Editor of Physics of Plasmas, 2003-2019. Editorial board member: Journal of Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2010 - present.

-- In 1991, he started the US-Russia Collaboration in Plasma Astrophysics. This collaboration helped to achieve many pioneering results in science. This is the only US-Russian collaboration in plasma astrophysics.

-- In 2000, he initiated the US-Kazakhstan Astrophysics Collaboration, which greatly helped scientists of Kazakhstan.

Research

1. In 1969, Lovelace discovered period \(P\!\approx 33\) ms of the Crab Nebula pulsar [2].


2. Proposed a model of jets from disks surrounding massive black holes in galaxies [4]. The model is based on the dynamo mechanism acting in the magnetized accretion disk surrounding a black hole or other gravitating object. The model has been widely accepted by the astronomical community and now is the main model explaining jets from galaxies, stars and planets.

3. Proposed the Rossby waves instability in accretion disks[5]. These waves form anti-cyclonic vorticies in accretion discs, where dust particles accumulate and form planets [6].

4. Developed the theory of the stability of electron and ion rings (e.g., [7]). The theory is used in the current laboratory experiments on the magnetic confinement fusion (e.g., in the TAE Technologies in California).

Other Scientific Achievements

-- Proposed a new method of measuring magnetic fields [8].

-- Developed pioneering theory of intense ion beams in pulsed diodes, which are currently used in laboratories [9].

-- Proposed the theory of magnetic insulation. The theory is used in laboratories, for example in Sandia National Laboratory [10].

-- Invented trapping mechanism of spin-polarized neutral gas. The mechanism has been experimentally demonstrated. [11][12].

-- Developed theory and simulations of scintillations in the interstellar medium [13].

-- Discovered the Kolmogoroff nature of the turbulence in the Solar wind [14].

-- In collaboration with Russian mathematicians, developed a global, three-dimensional numerical model of the disk-accreting magnetized stars. Many pioneering results were obtained with this 3D MHD model (e.g., [15].)

-- Provided the first estimate of the electric current in the astrophysical jet\[ 3\times 10^{18}\] Amps. [16].

Travels to Siberia

Richard liked to travel in Siberia. He climbed Altay and Sayani mountains, visited Yakuiya and Lake Baikal, climbed Avachinsky and Mutnovsky volcanos of Kamchatka.

Kamch 201-400.jpg Kamch 222.jpg Kamch 226.jpg
Richard at Kamchatka. First picture: Near Avachinsky volcano. Second and third pictures: Climbing Avachinsky volcano. Third picture: Koryaksky volcano at background.


References

  1. ``Digital Search Methods for Pulsars 1969, R. V. E. Lovelace, J. M. Sutton, E. E. Salpeter Nature 222 (5190), 231-233
  2. 2.0 2.1 ``Crab nebula pulsar NP 0532 1969, J. M. Comella, H. D. Craft, R. V. E. Lovelace, J. M. Sutton, G. L. Tyler Nature 221 (5179), 453-454
  3. "On the discovery of the period of the Crab Nebula pulsar" 2012, R. V. E. Lovelace and G. L. Tyler, The Observatory 132, 186–187
  4. "Dynamo model of double radio sources" R. V. E. Lovelace 1976, Nature 262 (5570), 649-652.
  5. ``Rossby wave instability of Keplerian accretion disks R. V. E. Lovelace, H. Li, S. A. Colgate, A. F. Nelson 1999, The Astrophysical Journal 513 (2), 805.
  6. ``Rossby wave instability in astrophysical discs R. V. E. Lovelace & M. M. Romanova, Fluid Dynamics Research, v. 46, p. 041401.
  7. ``Low-frequency stability of astron configurations R. V. E. Lovelace 1975, Physical Review Letters 35 (3), 162-164.
  8. ``System and method for sensing magnetic fields based on movement Patent: United States Patent 6,639,403 A. Temnykh, and R. V. E. Lovelace, October 28, 2003.
  9. ``Generation of intense ion beams in pulsed diodes. R. N. Sudan, and R. V. Lovelace 1973, Physical Review Letters 31 (19), 1174.
  10. ``Theory of magnetic insulation R. V. Lovelace, E. Ott 1974, The Physics of Fluids 17 (6), 1263-1268.
  11. ``Magnetic confinement of a neutral gas R. V. E. Lovelace, C. Mehanian, T. J. Tommila, D. M. Lee 1985, Nature 318 (6041), 30-36
  12. ``Storage rings for spin polarized hydrogen D. Thompson, R. V. E. Lovelace, D. M. Lee 1989, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 611.
  13. ``Refractive and diffractive scattering in the interstellar medium J. M. Cordes, A Pidwerbetsky, R. V. E. Lovelace The Astrophysical Journal 310, 737-767.
  14. ``Analysis of observations of interplanetary scintillations R. V. E. Lovelace, E. E. Salpeter, L. E. Sharp, & D. E. Harries 1970, ApJ, 159, p. 1047.
  15. ``Three-dimensional simulations of disk accretion to an inclined dipole. II. Hot spots and variability, M. M. Romanova, G. V. Ustyugova, A. V. Koldoba, R. V. E. Lovelace 2004, The Astrophysical Journal 610 (2), 920.
  16. ``Measurement of the electric current in a kpc-scale jet, P. P. Kronberg, R. V. E. Lovelace, G. Lapenta, and S. A. Colgate 2011, ApJ Letters 741, L15.

Keywords

Cornell University, Ion ring, Neutron star, Pulsar, Richard Lovelace, Scholar