# Scientific fact

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Scientific fact (Научный факт) is Scientific concept, that has no competitors at least in some range of its applicability.

Scientific fact satisfies the TORI axioms and, in addition, is main concept qith respect to any other known concepts that are cover the same range of applicability.

## Examples

Before the heliocentric system of Universe, the geocentric system by Ptolemy is scientific fact.

Before the experiments with nuclear reactions, the concept of conservation of number of atoms of each kind in a closed system is scientific fact.

While the artificial life is not created in a laboratory from non–living materials, Biogenesis is Scientific fact. This applies even to the most radical form of Biogenesis: The life at the Earth is created by God, and there is no other way to create life from non–lining objects.

Until creation (and reporting) of the Quantum mechanics and the Special theory of relativity, the Classical mechanics is scientific fact.

The system of axioms of Arithmetics is scientific fact. The hypothesis of existence of the big number, called the Mizugadro number, such that the Arithmetics axiom lead to a contradiction being applied to this number, is considered in article Mizugadro number(dream) [1].

However, the hypothesis of existence of the Mizugadro number is not a Scientific concept. It does not satisfy the Second TORI axiom, it is not refutable. We cannot prove the self-consistency of the system of axioms of Arithmetics.

The hypothesis of existence and uniqueness of tetration is scientific fact. Tetration $\mathrm{tet}$ is holomorphic solution of equation $\exp(\mathrm{tet}(z))=\mathrm{tet}(z\!+\!1)$, satisfying certain additional conditions (see Superfunctions) [2][3].

Causality is Scientific fact. Every event can be described as result of events that happen before it.

Concept that the Nevsky Express bombing in 2009 had been performed upon approval of Edro, is scientific fact, at least until another scientific concept is suggested to explain, how the Edros could submit the statements about the mass memorial meetings about that catastrophe before the catastrophe. In such a way, the causality principle indicates, that the crash of the Nevsly Express happened as result of the terroristic act.

Concept about corruption of the Putins election committees is scientific fact. These committees perform the election fraud; no other scientific concept is available to explain the appearance of the reports about the fraud [4][5][6][7].

Concept Putin killed Nemtsov is scientific fact. No other scientific concept is available to describe the behaviour of criminalists, who investigated the case. The criminalists could not answer the key questions about the case; then just ignored the disappearance of videorecords of the crime made by the monitoring cameras placed at the Kremlin wall and at the posts of the Nemtsov bridge. Such a sabotage has no other explanation. This indicates, confirms, verifies, proves the incolvement of Vladimir Putin in that murder.

Involvement of KGB in the organisation of catastrophe of airplane A321, performed рейс7k9268 and crashed 2015.10.31 at the Sinai, is scientific fact. No other concept is available to describe absence of the videorecords of the crash by the monitoring cameras on board, that were supposed to transfer the images to the ground stations in real time. Nor the ignorance of that absence by the research group is explained by other concepts about that crash.

## Irrefutable facts and terminology

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In TORI terminology, no one scientific fact can be irrefutable.

## References

2. https://www.morebooks.de/store/ru/book/Суперфункции/isbn/978-3-659-56202-0
http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/BOOK/202.pdf
3. http://www.ams.org/mcom/2009-78-267/S0025-5718-09-02188-7/home.html D.Kouznetsov. (2009). Solutions of F(z+1)=exp(F(z)) in the complex plane. Mathematics of Computation, 78: 1647-1670.
4. http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/1831646 Победа единовбросов. Журнал "Коммерсантъ Власть", №49 (953), 12.12.2011. (in Russian)
5. http://www.gazeta.ru/science/2011/12/10_a_3922390.shtml СЕРГЕЙ ШПИЛЬКИН. Статистика исследовала выборы. 10.12.11 14:57.
6. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/41/16469.abstract Peter Klimek, Yuri Yegorov, Rudolf Hanel, and Stefan Thurner. Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, vol. 109 no. 41, 16469–16473 (2012)
7. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/12/19/1206770110.full.pdf Ruben Enikolopov, Vasily Korovkin, Maria Petrova, Konstantin Sonin and Alexei Zakharov. Field experiment estimate of electoral fraud in Russian parliamentary elections. PNAS Early Edition. (2012)

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/scientific+fact scientific fact - an observation that has been confirmed repeatedly and is accepted as true (although its truth is never final)

http://www.whatislife.com/education/fact/fact_home.html What is a Scientific Fact? Facts must not be believed for what they are, but for what they explain.