Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

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Gennady S. Bisnovati-Kogan is astrophysicist, who predicted the binary radiopulsars.

Formal data

Date of birth: December 6, 1941

Place of birth: Village of Michailovka, Saratov region, Russia, USSR

Current permanent position: Main Scientific Fellow, Institute of Space Research (IKI), Profsoyuznaya, 84/32, 117997, Moscow, Russia ( Email:

1958-1964: Student of Moscow Physical-Technical Institute,
1964-1967: Postgraduate student of Moscow Physical-Technical Institute and Keldysch Institute of Applied Mathematics. Supervisor: Ya.Zeldovich.

1967-1974: Junior Scientific Fellow at Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics.
1974-present: Senior, Leading, and now Main Scientific Fellow at Space Research Institute (IKI).

PhD thesis: ``Late stages of stellar evolution (1968), Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics.

Doctoral thesis: ``The equilibrium and stability of stars and stellar systems (1977), IKI. Professor of Astrophysics, 1991, IKI.

Main Scientific Results

The first determination of the maximum mass of a hot neutron star ( ~ 70M_sun). Suggetstion of the idea of the magnetorotational supernovae model, numerical calculations of which were made in his group, show a high efficiency of transformation of the rotational energy into the energy of the explosion. This energy is enough to account for the energetics of core-collapse supernovae.

The theory of the mass loss from massive evolved stars was developed, and the method for construction of self-consistent stellar models with mass loss was put forward. Some models were constructed numerically.

Prediction of the existence of the binary radiopulsars, going through the stage of being X-ray sources (recycled pulsars).

Now about 200 of such objects are known. The first one, the Hulse-Taylor pulsar, was observed 1n 1975, about one year after its prediction (Nobel Prize for this observational discovery in the year 1993). (see

Original results were obtained on the theory of accretion into black holes and neutron stars: formation of the accretion disc coronae; first indication of accretion disc convective instabilities; formation of large magnetic fields in the vicinity of black holes; the first analysis of the accretion disk model with advection; the self-consistent model of accretion onto a rapidly rotating star.

The discovery of the nonequilibrium layer in the crust of neutron stars, and model of the cosmic gamma ray burst models originated on neutron stars (the origin of bursts in soft gamma repeaters inside the Galaxy). The neutrino background formed by core-collapse supernovae was first calculated, and possibility of its observation have been discussed (1982). The search of this background is going on in the experiment Super-Kamiokande (Japan), and its discovery is expected in the near future. Theory of propagation of strong 2-D and 3-D shocks in the interstellar medium was developed in a thin layer approximation (review was published in 1994).

Formation of the "pancakes" in the dark matter large scale structure of the universe, and gravitational very long-wave background was investigated in 2004-2006.

The book "Physical problems of theory of stellar evolution" was published in 1989 in Russian. The English translation of the updated version was published in English in two volumes as "Stellar Physics", in 2001, Springer. I have written, in total, more than 350 scientific papers.

He is teaching at the Moscow Ingeneure-Physical University, Professor of Theoretical Physics. Also, he is a member of the Editorial board in the journals ``Astrophysics (Armenia); ``Gravitation and Cosmology (Russia); ``Transactions of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Russia). He is a member of scientific counsels in the Space Research Institute and the Shternberg Astronomical Institute; member of European Academy of Sciences (Brussels) since 2002.


1. The explosion of a rotating star as a supernova mechanism. Sov. Astron. 1971, 14, 652-655.

2. Relativistic gas spheres and clusters of point masses with arbitrary large central redshifts: can they be stable? Ap. J. 1970, 160, 875-885 (with K. Thorne).

3. Growth of perturbations in an expanding universe of free particles. Sov. Astron. 1971, 14, 758-762 (with Ya.B. Zeldovich).

4. Physical processes in relativistic low-density plasma. Sov. Astron. 1971, 15, 17-23 (with Ya.B.Zeldovich and R.A. Sunyaev).

5. Solar wind outflow from active regions. Solar Phys. 1971, 18, 133- 149 (with I.M. Gordon).

6. Magnetic field generation in rotating stars and quasars. Ap. Lett. 1971, 8, 151-152 (with S.I. Vainshtein).

7. On a generation of magnetic field in rotating relativistic bodies. Astron. Ap. 1972, 17, 243-245 (with A.A. Ruzmaikin).

8. Model of stationary stellar cluster with high binding energy. Sov. Phys. JETP 1972, 35, 831-833.

9. The equilibrium, stability and evolution of a rotating magnetised gaseous disc. Ap. Space Sci. 1972, 19, 119-144 (with S.I. Blinnikov).

10. The stability of rotating supermassive stars. Astron. Ap. 1973, 27, 209-221 (with A.A. Ruzmaikin).

11. Stellar envelopes at supercritical luminosity. Ap. Space. Sci. 1973, 22, 307-320.

12. Nucleosynthesis in supernova outbursts and the chemical composition of the envelopes of neutron stars. Ap. Space Sci. 1974, 25, 25-45 (with V.M. Chechetkin).

13. Pulsars and close binary systems. Sov. Astron. 1974, 18, 217-221 (with B.V. Komberg).

14. Accretion of matter by a collapsing star in the presence of a magnetic field. Ap. Space Sci. 1974, 28, 45-59 (with A.A. Ruzmaikin).

15. Static criteria for stability of arbitrary rotating stars. Astron. Ap. 1974, 31, 391-404 (with S.I. Blinnikov).

16. Pulsed gamma-ray emission from neutron and collapsing stars and supernovae. Ap. Space Sci. 1975, 35, 23-41 (with V.S.Imshennik, D.K.Nadyozhin, V.M. Chechetkin)

17. Registration of neutrino, produced in relativistic collapse. JETP Lett. 1974, 19, 319-320 (with Z.F. Seidov).

18. Nonequilibrium beta processes and the role of exited states of nuclei. Sov. Phys. JETP 1975, 40, 806-810 (with M.A. Rudzskii and Z.F. Seidov).

19. Accretion of matter by a collapsing star in the presence of a magnetic field II.Stationary self-consistent picture. Ap.Space Sci. 1976, 42, 401-425 (with A.A. Ruzmaikin).

20. Variability of pulse form shapes of X-ray pulsar Her X-1. Astron. Ap. 1975, 43, 385-388 (with B.V. Komberg and M. Reinhardt).

21. The magnetohydrodynamical rotational model of supernova explosion. Ap. Space Sci. 1976, 41, 287-320 (with Yu.P. Popov and A.A. Samochin).

22. Elongated equilibrium stellar systems tidally distorted in pairs. Month. Not. R.A.S. 1976, 174, 203-211.

23. Possible evolution of a binary-system radio pulsar as an old object with a week magnetic field. Sov. Astron. Lett. 1976, 2, 130-132 (with B.V. Komberg).

24. A hot corona around a black-hole accretion disk as a model for Cyg X-1. Sov. Astron. Lett. 1976, 2, 191-193 (with S.I.Blinnikov).

25. Disc accretion into a black hole at subcritical luminosity. Astron. Ap. 1977, 59, 111-125 (with S.I. Blinnikov).

26. Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects. Rivista Nouvo Cim. 1979, 2, 2-40.

27. Evolution of dense stellar clusters. Sov. Astron. Lett. 1978, 4, 69-71.

28. Nonequilibrium shells of neutron stars and their role in sustaining X-ray luminosity and nucleosynthesis. Sov. Phys. Uspechi 1979, 22, 89-108 (with V.M. Chechetkin).

29. Interaction of middle energy neutrino with nuclei. Nucl. Phys. 1979, A324, 350-364 (with E.V. Bugaev et al.).

30. A nature of brightness fluctuations in the X-ray source Cyg X-1. Sov. Astron. Lett. 1978, 4, 290-291 (with S.I. Blinnikov).

31. A magnetorotational explosion of a supernova in a cylindrical model. Sov. Astron. 1979, 23, 705-711 (with N.V. Ardelyan and Yu.P. Popov).

32. Distribution of stars around a black hole: numerical solution of kinetic equation with collisions. Astron. Ap. 1982, 113, 179-190 (with B.I. Kolosov and R.S. Churaev).

33. Spherical accretion on to compact X-ray source with preheating: no thermal limit for the luminosity. Month. Not. R.A.S. 1980, 191, 711-719 (with S.I. Blinnikov).

34. Cosmology with nonzero neutrino rest mass. Sov. Astron. 1980, 24, 516-517 (with I.D. Novikov).

35. A model of a thin disc around a black hole. Acta Astron. 1981, 31, 283-291 (with B. Paczynski).

36. Middle energy neutrino in the universe. Sov. Astron. 1982, 26, 132-138, (with Z.F. Seidov).

37. Particle collisions in an expanding universe. Sov. Phys. JETP, 1982, 55, 1-4 (with I.G. Shuchman).

38. Spherization of the remnants of an asymmetric supernova outburst in a homogeneous medium. Sov. Astron. 1982, 530-537 (with S.I. Blinnikov).

39. X-ray burster sources: their origin and evolution. Sov. Astron. 1983, 27, 519-523 (with M.M.Romanova).

40. Stars with neutrom cores. The possibility of the existence of objects with a low neutrino luminosity. Sov Astron. 1984, 28, 187-193 (with S.A. Lamzin).

41. Supernovae, neutrino rest mass and middle energy neutrino background in the universe. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1984, 422, 319-327 (with Z.F.Seidov).

42. Collapse of the spherical stellar system. Ap. Space Sci. 1984, 100, 319-328 (with L.R.Yangurazova).

43. Neutrino in the Friedman universe: effects if non-zero rest mass. Ap. Space Sci. 1984, 02, 131-150 (with Z.F. Seidov).

44. A model of object Geminga as a degenerate white dwarf orbiting around a black hole. Nature, 1985, 315, 555-557.

45. Equilibrium of magnetized discs. Ap. Space Sci. 1985, 115, 275-294 (with Z.F.Seidov).

46. Core collapse and formation of rapidly rotating neutron star. Sov. Astron. 1987, 31, 398-403 (with N.V. Ardelyan, Yu.P. Popov, S.V. Chernigovski).

47. Relativistic collapse of stellar clusters after the loss of stability. Ap. Space Sci. 1988, 147, 121-135 (with L.R, Yangurazova).

48. Periodicity search in sources with low count rate. Ap. Space Sci. 1988, 147, 307-320 (with L.S.Gurin, S.V.Budnik, E.Yu.Budnik, N.P.Belyaeva).

49. Can we expect a free precessing neutron star in Her X-1? Astron Ap. 1989, 221, 27-29 (with G.A. Mersov and E.K. Sheffer).

50. Angular velocity distribution in convective regions and the origin of Solar differential rotation. Solar. Phys. 1990, 128, 299-304.

51. Motion of atoms in stellar magnetic fields. Ap. Space Sci. 1990, 168, 293-304 (with P. Hofflich).

52. Gamma ray bursts from nuclear fission in neutron stars. Proc. Los Alamos Workshop on GRB, Taos 1990, p.89-98.

53. Period variations and phase residuals in freely precessing stars. Astron.Ap. 1993, 267, p.L43-L46 (with P. Kahabka).

54. Violation of mirror symmetry of the magnetic field in rotating stars and possible astrophysical implications. Sov.Astron. 1992, 36, p.285-289 (with S.G. Moiseenko).

55. Mechanisms of jet formation. Proc 6-th Capri workshop, "Stellar jets and bipolar outflows" 1991, p.369-381, eds. L. Errico and A.A. Vittone, Kluwer.

56. Self-consistent solution for accretion disc structure around rapidly rotating nonmagnetized star. Astron.Ap. 1993, 274, p.796-806.

57. Asymmetric neutrino emission and formation of rapidly moving pulsars. Astron. Ap. Trans. 1993, 3, p.287-294.

58. Stability of dense stellar clusters to relativistic collapse. Ap.J. 1993, 414 187-199 (with R. Ruffini, M. Merafina, and E. Vesperini).

59. Geminga braking index and pulsar motion. Nature 1993, 366, p.663-665 (with K. Postnov).

60. Analytical self-consistent solution for the structure of polytropic accretiont disks with boundary layers. Month. Not. R.A.S. 1994, 269, 557-562.

61. Close galactic origin of GRB. Ap.J.Suppl. 1995, 97, 185-187.

62. Spin-up/spin-down of magnetized stars with accretion disks and outflows. Month. Not. R.A.S. 1995, 275, 244-254 (with R. Lovelace, M.M. Romanova)

63. Cylindrical gamma-monitor (CYGAM) concept. Ap. J. Suppl. 1994, 92, p.679-681 (with N.G. Leikov).

64. Structure of accretion disks with optically thick-thin transitions. Ap. J. 1996, 456, 119-123 (with J. Artemova, G. Bjornsson, I. Novikov).

65. Shock-wave propagation in the nonuniform interstellar medium (with S.A. Silich). Rev. Mod. Phys. 67 (1995) 661-712.

66. Early stages of relativistic fireball expansion. Phys.Rev.D 1995, 52, 4380-4392 (with M.V. Murzina)

67. Observational post gamma-ray burst manifestation in the cosmological model due to its interaction with the galactic gas. Ap.Sp.Sci. 1996, 235, 59-67 (with A.N.Timokhin).

68. Gamma Ray Burst Source Statistics in presence of stochastic errors. Astron. Ap. 1997, 324, 573-577.

69. Relativistic stellar clusters. Gravitation and Cosmology 1996, 2, 289-296.

70. Synchrotron Radiation in Astrophysics. in the book "Synchrotron Radiation Theory and its Developement", ed. A.V. Bordovitsyn, 1999, World Scientific, pp.385-443.

71. Radiationally driven envelopes at arbitrary optical depths. Astron. Ap. 1999, 344, 647-654 (with A.V. Dorodnitsyn).

72. Influence of Ohmic heating on advection-dominated accretion flows. Astrophys. J. Lett., 1997, 486, L43-46 (with R.V.E. Lovelace).

73. Stability of rotating supermassive stars in presence of dark matter. Astrophys. J. 1998, 497, 559-564.

74. Accretion disc theory: from standard model until advection. Proc. Symp. "Observational Evidences for Black Holes in the Universe" 11-17 Jan. 1998, Calcutta. Kluwer, 1999, pp.1-18.

75. Magnetic propeller outflows. ApJ, 1999, 514, 368-372 (with R.V.E. Lovelace, M.M. Romanova).

76. Magnetic fields of neutron stars: very low and very high. Proc. Vulcano-99 Workshop. Mem. della Soc. Astron. Ital. 73, 318-329 (2002); astro-ph/9911275.

77. Accretion of a magnetized matter into a black hole. Gravitation and Cosmology, 5, 261-271 (1999).

78. On the structure of advective accretion disks at high luminosity. ApJ, 2001, 549, 1050-1061 (with I.V. Artemova, I.D. Novikov, I.V. Igumenshchev)

79. Stellar oscillations and stellar convection in presence of URCA shell. Mon.Not. R.A.S. 321, pp 315-326 (2001).

80. Stochastic appearance in stars and high energy sources. Space Sci. Rev. 102, 9-22 (2002)

81. Chaotic motion and ballistic ejection of gravitating shells. Mon.Not. R.A.S. 334, 338-344 (2002), (with M.V. Barkov, V.A. Belinski).

82. Advective accretion disks and related problems including magnetic fields. New Astron. Rewievs 45, 663-742 (2001), (with R.V.E. Lovelace).

83. Stellar Physics. Vol.1. Fundamental concepts and stellar equilibrium. 323 pp.; Vol.2. Stellar evolution and stability. 381 pp. Springer (2001).

84. A cosmic battery reconsidered. ApJ, 580, 380-388 (2002). (with R.Lovelace, V.A.Belinski).

85. A simplified model of the formation of structures in the dark matter, and a background of very long gravitational waves. Mon.Not. R.A.S., (2004), 347, 163-172

86. Magnetorotational mechanism: supernovae explosions and jet formation. Ann Europ. Acad. Sci. (2003), pp. 251-280.

87. On chaotic behavior of gravitating stellar shells. Chaos (2005) 15, 0131104, 8 pages (with M.N. Barkov, A.I. Neishtadt, V.A. Belinski).

88. Dynamic stability of compact stars. Proc. NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Superdense QCD Matter and Compact Stars. Yerevan, Armenia September 27- October 4, 2003; Springer, 3-21 (2006).

89. Magnetorotational supernova. MNRAS 359, 333-344 (2005). (with N.V.Ardelyan, S.G.Moiseenko).

90. Cosmic gamma ray bursts: confrontation between observations and theory. in "Frontiers in Cosmic Ray Research." Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York (2007), 209-250.

91. Very high frequency gravitational wave background in the universe. Class.Quant.Grav. 21, (2004) 3347-3359 (with V.N. Rudenko)

92. Screening of the Magnetic Field of Disk Accreting Stars. ApJ, 625, 957-965 (2005) (with Lovelace, R.V.E.; Romanova, M. M).

93. Gamma ray bursts: observations and modeling. Phys. of Particles and Nuclei (2006), 37, 647-676.

94. Self-gravitating gas spheres in a box and relativistic clusters: relation between dynamical and thermodynamical stability. ApJ, (2006), 653, 1445-1453 (with M. Merafina).

95. Black Hole Advective Accretion Disks with Optical Depth Transition. ApJ, (2006), 637, 968-977 (With V. Artemova, I. V. Igumenshchev, I. D. Novikov).

96. Approximate Dynamics of Dark Matter Ellipsoids. MNRAS (2005), 364, 833-842 (with O.Yu. Tsupko).

97. Binary and recycled pulsars: 30 years after observational discovery. Physics-Uspekhi (2006), 49, 53-67.

98. Radiative effects in the supersonic wind accretion onto gravitating objects. Implications for the Vela X-1 binary. Astron. Ap. (2005) 441, 863-872 (with I.~Kryukov, N.~Pogorelov, U.~Anzer, G.~B\"orner).

99. Checking the variability of the gravitational constant with binary pulsars. Int. J. Mod. Phys. D (2006), 15, 1047-1051

100. A magnetohydrodynamic core-collapse model with jets. MNRAS (2006), 370, 501-512 (with S.G. Moiseenko, N.V. Ardeljan).

101. Dynamic confinement of jets by magneto-torsional oscillations. MNRAS (2007), 376, 457-464.

102. Large-Scale B-Field in Stationary Accretion Disks Astrophys. J. Lett. (2007) 667, L167-L169 (with Lovelace, R. V. E.).

Member of US/Russia Collaboration on Plasma Astrophysics (

List of Astronomers (


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