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JapanE is set of the following Unicode characters:

X2F2F [1], KanjiRadical

X30A8 [2], KatakanaE

X5DE5 [3], KanjiLiberal, sound: コウ、ク; menaing: craft, construction [4].


   X5DE5L1.png X5DE5kL1.png X5DE5km1.png
  versions of

View of characters of JapanE depends on the software. The three examples are shown in figure at right.

There would be nothing wrong in three different views, would they correspond to the three different characters.
The problem is, that all the three pictures in figure at right correspond to the same character X5DE5 , viewed at different computers. No any special font regulation had been applied; these are default views.

The similar variety applies also to other characters of JapanE. So, for year 2021, with these Unicode characters, the serious problem remains: for three characters, at least three different pictures are used in almost random order.

The case is aggrieved, as at the same computer, the three characters may look pretty similar. That part of the problem is considered in the next section.


Characters of JapanE X2F2F , X30A8 , X5DE5 look similar.

Even a native Japanese speaker, watching , , , is unlikely to answer:
Which of them is X2F2F?
Which of them is X30A8?
Which of them is X5DE5?

While such a character is printed, the correct specification is

"X2F2F or X30A8 or X5DE5 "

Term JapanE is defined in the preamble as substitute of this (long and complicated) construction.

If some printed character is recognized as JapanE, the the context can be used to identify it as KanjiRadical, KatakanaE or KanjiLiberal.

In case of a separated character, some programming is necessary. The character can be identified with PHP program du.t the call may have form

php du.t ⼯エ工

This command returns the Utf8 encoding of each of the input characters.

Scientific interest

Various pictures are already designed for characters of JapanE.

Up to year 2021, no regular way is found to assign
one of them to KanjiRadical X2F2F ,
another to the KatakanaE X30A8 ,
and the third one to KanjiLiberal X5DE5 .

Similar confusion takes place also for other characters of Japanese language.
In such a way, the standardization of fonts for the Unicode characters, as well as support of Japanese in computers, could be significantly improved.


  1. https://util.unicode.org/UnicodeJsps/character.jsp?a=2F2F 30A8 KATAKANA LETTER E Katakana Script id: restricted confuse: , ..
  2. https://util.unicode.org/UnicodeJsps/character.jsp?a=30A8 30A8 KATAKANA LETTER E Katakana Script id: restricted confuse: , ..
  3. https://util.unicode.org/UnicodeJsps/character.jsp?a=5DE5 5DE5 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DE5 Han Script id: restricted confuse: , ..
  4. http://www.manythings.org/kanji/d/5de5.htm 工 craft craft; construction; skill コウ、ク


Confusion, Japanese, JapanE, Kanji, KanjiConfudal, KanjiLiberal, KanjiRadical, Katakana, KatakanaE, Unocode, X2F2F , X30A8 , X5DE5 ,