During the USSR, Gulag is used to organise the slavish labor of prixoners, zeks, at the dangerous industries, including building–up channels without machinery and in nuclear industry, often without elementary tools for the health protection.
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Gulag, abbreviation of Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, (Russian: “Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps”), the system of Soviet labour camps and accompanying detention and transit camps and prisons that from the 1920s to the mid-1950s housed the political prisoners and criminals of the Soviet Union. At its height the Gulag imprisoned millions of people. The name Gulag had been largely unknown in the West until the publication of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago, 1918–1956 (1973), whose title likens the labour camps scattered through the Soviet Union to an island chain. ..
- https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=913024048774050&id=100001993908974 Юрий Гиммельфарб. 2015.12.11.
- https://scontent.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpa1/v/t1.0-9/12011177_1055117824501044_7713124980668139643_n.jpg?oh=4987dc8579d072e1bf7f5537735aaadc&oe=56650868 Боря Цейтлин 2015 September 18. Визуализировал. Карта плотности населения РФ без учета территорий с показателем менее 3 человек на 1 квадратный километр.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulag The Gulag (Russian: ГУЛАГ; IPA: [ɡʊˈlak] (About this sound listen); acronym of Главное Управление Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerej, Main Camps' Administration or Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps) was the government agency created under Vladimir Lenin which reached its peak as the Soviet forced labor camp system during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s up until the 1950s. The term is also commonly used to reference any forced-labor camp in the Soviet Union, including in post-Stalin times. The camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners. Large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD troikas (secret police) and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment. The Gulag is recognized as a major instrument of political repression in the Soviet Union. ..
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gulag_Archipelago The Gulag Archipelago (Russian: Архипела́г ГУЛА́Г, Arkhipelág GULÁG) is a book by sociologist and historian Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn about the Soviet forced labor camp system. The three-volume book is a narrative relying on eyewitness testimony and primary research material, as well as the author's own experiences as a prisoner in a gulag labor camp. Written between 1958 and 1968, it was published in the West in 1973 and, thereafter, it was circulated in samizdat (underground publication) form in the Soviet Union until its appearance in the Russian literary journal, Novy Mir, in 1989, in which a third of the work was published in three issues.
http://gulaghistory.org The Soviet Gulag existed neither as a single unified experience, nor as a single unified institution. This massive and lethal machine influenced the lives of millions of people from 1917-1988.
http://gulaghistory.org/nps/onlineexhibit/stalin/work.php GULAG was the acronym for the Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps.
https://www.gla.ac.uk/beautyinhell THE HUNTERIAN. BEAUTY IN HELL: CULTURE IN THE GULAG. Founded in 1807, The Hunterian is Scotland's oldest public museum and home to one of the largest collections outside the National Museums. The Hunterian is one of the leading university museums in the world and its collections have been Recognised as a Collection of National Significance. It is one of Scotland’s most important cultural assets. .. The Solovki Camp - An Introduction..