In general, Hostage (Заложничество) is principle of organisation, action, characterized in the following: one cannot identify or catch persons who are believed to be guilty, and, therefore, punish the innocent people. This principle implies either certain moral responsibility of the guilty person, or certain actions from the innocent people with respect to the guilty person.
Hostage means also person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against certain acts of war. However, in contemporary usage, it means someone who is seized by a criminal abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative, employer, law enforcement, or government to act, or refrain from acting, in a particular way, often under threat of serious physical harm to the hostage(s) after expiration of an ultimatum. .
A person who seizes one or more hostages is known as a hostage-taker; if the hostages are present voluntarily, then the receiver is known as a host.
hostage-taking is qualified as act of terror, as it implied punishment of one person for actions of another person.
There are many publications about the AntiMagnitsky law, (Herod law, 2012) that prohibits adoption of Russian orphans to American families, as way to press the American administration for the Magnitsky bill. Similar use of Russian orphans to press the European administration is reported in year 2013 .
Russian invasion into Ukraine
Terror appears as the main tactics of the pro–Russian occupants during the Russian invasion into Ukraine. In particular, the occupants use to take hostages. The terroristic activity of the pro–russian militaries caused sanctions.
Russia is not only country, that uses hostages as political instrument. Similar phenomena are reported about the North Korea. .
- http://lana-sator.livejournal.com/195712.html Lana Sator (lana_sator). Заброшенный лагерь "Юный Зиловец". Часть 1. 2013-06-21 13:53:00.
- http://imgur.com/w8xP4 А теперь медленно опусти свой дурацкий закон на землю. (2012, December)
- http://valdaiclub.com/russia_in_foreign_media/58020.html Neil Buckley and Jamie Smyth. Moscow uses Irish adoption threat to block use of Magnitsky list. 11:14 26/04/2013. Russia has threatened to block Irish adoptions of Russian children if the Dublin parliament adopts a US-style “Magnitsky List” imposing sanctions on Russian officials. The warning to Ireland, in a letter from Russia’s ambassador to the parliament’s foreign affairs and trade committee, is the first time Moscow has threatened similar action against another country.
- http://www.newsru.com/world/26apr2013/letter.html Москва пригрозила Дублину: если там примут свой "акт Магнитского", то тоже не увидят русских сирот. Пятница, 26 апреля 2013 г.
- http://touch.latimes.com/#section/-1/article/p2p-79996632/ SERGEI L. LOIKO AND CAROL J. WILLIAMS. Ukraine says it cleared pro-Russia gunmen from eastern town. April 24, 2014, 9:14 a.m. .. Vyacheslav Ponomaryov, the gunman who has proclaimed himself mayor of Slovyansk, confirmed that his armed group was holding 10 hostages, including an American journalist, and demanding the release of Russian agents and fighters detained by Ukrainian forces trying to reassert Kiev's authority in the turbulent east. ..
- http://khpg.org/index.php?id=1398472991 Halya Coynash. Moscow’s “Voice of the People” in Slovyansk. 26.04.14. “You should shut up, Obama” is the title given to an extraordinary interview which Gazeta.ru took of Viacheslav Ponomarev, self-styled “people’s mayor” of Slovyansk. As of Friday evening, his armed pro-Russian militants are holding OSCE military observers, and InfoResist reports Ponomarev as calling them “prisoners of war”. The exact whereabouts of at least 3 journalists and some others taken hostage earlier remain unknown. Unknown and of immense concern, given that two people who were almost certainly taken hostage by pro-Russian forces have been found murdered. Volodymyr Rybak, a Horlivka City Council deputy was abducted after a confrontation with militants when he tried to take down a flag of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People’s Republic. His body was found in a river near Slovyansk together with that of 19-year-old student, Yury Popravko. Both men seem to have been tortured before being thrown unconscious into the water. ..
- https://en.rsf.org/ukraine-two-journalists-still-held-hostage-08-05-2014,46248.html TWO JOURNALISTS STILL HELD HOSTAGE IN SLOVIANSK AFTER TWO OTHERS FREED. THURSDAY 8 MAY 2014. Reporters Without Borders is very relieved to learn that Artem Deynega, a netizen, and Sergei Lefter, a journalist who had been acting as an observer for the Open Dialogue Foundation, an NGO, were released in Sloviansk on 6 May after being held hostage by pro-Russian militiamen for more than three weeks.
- http://www.rferl.org/content/interview-freed-hostage-ukraine-lefter-slovyansk-journalist/25381969.html Interview: Three Weeks A Hostage In Slovyansk. Saturday, May 17, 2014. Serhiy Lefter, a Ukrainian journalist working for a Polish NGO, spent nearly three weeks in captivity by pro-Russian militants in the city of Slovyansk in the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic. Shortly after his release on May 6, Lefter spoke with RFE/RL Russian Service correspondent Dmitry Volchek about his ordeal. ..
- https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/designate-russia-state-sponsor-terrorism/XMjbTltM WE PETITION THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION TO: Designate Russia as "State Sponsor of Terrorism" In its unannounced war against Ukraine, Russia relies on covert operations which fall squarely within the definition of "international terrorism" under 18 U.S.C. § 2331. Specifically, armed operatives of Russia, acting under disguise, attempt to influence the policy of Ukrainian government by intimidation or coercion. They also try to affect the conduct of a government by assassinations and kidnapping, taking by force government buildings, police posts and military bases of Ukraine. This activity is being conducted on large scale and over prolonged time period, despite condemnation by the USA, G-7, NATO, EU and UN. Accordingly, Russia must be officially designated as "State sponsor of terrorism", per http://www.state.gov/j/ct/list/c14151.htm Created: Apr 23, 2014
- 2017.03.07 http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/03/07/11-malaysians-stranded-at-pyongyang-airport/ d. kanyakumari. 11 Malaysians stranded in Pyongyang. Tuesday, 7 March 2017 | MYT 12:53 PM. KUALA LUMPUR: A total of 11 Malaysians are stranded in Pyongyang, North Korea, says Deputy Foreign Minister Datuk Seri Reezal Merican Naina Merican. // This came after Pyongyang banned all Malaysian citizens from leaving North Korea, potentially holding them hostage amid an increasingly heated diplomatic row over the killing of Kim Jong-nam, the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA2) on Feb 13. ..
2014.04.26. http://article.wn.com/view/2014/04/26/Ucrania_acusa_a_Moscu_de_usar_observadores_detenidos_como_es/ Thomas Grove. Ucrania acusa a Moscú de usar observadores detenidos como "escudos humanos". 2014-04-26. Separatistas prorrusos en el este de Ucrania ofrecieron el sábado la liberación de ocho observadores internacionales cautivos mediante un canje de prisioneros, en momentos en que los gobiernos occidentales preparaban nuevas sanciones contra Moscú. ..
2014.04.27. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/27/us-ukraine-crisis-idUSBREA3O16720140427 MATT SPETALNICK AND THOMAS GROVE. Ukraine rebels free Swedish hostage; Obama seeks unity against Russia. Sun Apr 27, 2014 7:21pm EDT.
2014.04.29. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2014/0429/For-Germans-hostage-taking-sparks-new-focus-on-Ukraine-crisis-video Sara Miller Llana, Staff writer, Rachel Stern, Correspondent. For Germans, hostage-taking sparks new focus on Ukraine crisis (+video) The seizure of German military observers in eastern Ukraine has put a human face on a crisis that could force Germany into a tougher tone with Russia. April 29, 2014
2014.04.30. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2616422/Ukraine-hostages-held-EU-sanctions-Separatists-say-release-six-military-observers-exchange-end-asset-freezes-travel-bans.html DAVID WILLIAMS. Ukraine hostages held over EU sanctions: Separatists say they will release six military observers in exchange for end of asset freezes and travel bans. 08:25 GMT, 30 April 2014.Separatists demanded the end of EU sanctions in return for the release of six military observers seized by militia in eastern Ukraine. The mayor of Slaviansk, Vyacheslav Ponomaryov, said he would only discuss plans to free the six if sanctions were lifted against rebel leaders. ..
2014.05.02. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/02/obama-merkel-warn-russia-economic-sanctions-ukraine Paul Lewis. Obama and Merkel warn Russia of economic sanctions over Ukraine. Friday 2 May 2014 19.37 BST. Both leaders called for the immediate release of seven hostages who were working as monitors by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe when they were captured by pro-Russian forces in eastern Ukraine.
2014.05.05. http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/twenty-four-people-remain-hostages-in-donetsk-oblast-346360.html Twenty-four people remain hostages in Donetsk Oblast. May 5, 2014, 8:05 p.m. .. Despite the Russian-backed separatists’ May 2 release of 12 hostages, including seven foreigners from an OSCE military monitoring mission, 24 people are still being held hostage in Donestsk Oblast by the militants. ..
2014.05.07. http://inforesist.org/a-miner-from-donetsk-who-was-taken-as-a-hostage-tells-about-his-tortures-video/?lang=en A miner from Donetsk, who was taken as a hostage tells about his tortures (Video) LightningMay 7, 2014.
2014.05.15. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/05/14/us-nigeria-girls-prisoners-idUSBREA4D0NV20140514 ISAAC ABRAK. Nigeria rejects swap of Boko Haram prisoners for schoolgirls: UK official. MAIDUGURI, Nigeria Wed May 14, 2014 7:02pm EDT. .. President Goodluck Jonathan is under pressure to crush the rebels who have killed thousands in their campaign for an Islamist state and to free the girls whose abduction a month ago has sparked global outrage. ..
2014.05.30. http://www.radiosvoboda.org/content/article/25403614.html Сепаратисти в Донецьку утримують десятки заручників – екс-депутат райради. 30 травня 2014, Київ 16:10. Сепаратисти у Донецьку утримують заручників у підвалі захопленої Донецької облдержадміністрації. Про це Радіо Свобода розповів колишній депутат Ленінської райради Донецька Дмитро Верзілов. .. За словами Верзілова, частину заручників утримують в ОДА для того, щоб потім отримати за них викуп.