Annexation of Crimea
Annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014 –2016, (denoted also with terms Russian occupation of Crimea and Аннексия Крыма) is observed since 2014.02.20, that can be considered as the beginning of the Russian invasion into Ukraine, and as part of the Putin world war
The Russian administration, following Vladimir Putin, insist, that the annexation corresponds to the historical prudence and necessary for the reunion of Russian nations. Several authors suggest historical maps that indicate, that this claim is not consistent.
Decision of administration of civilised countries not to recognise the annexation of Crimea as change of its legal status is specified in the resolution of General Assembly of the United Nations from 2014.03.27. .
According the the decision and the corresponding status, all Russian soldiers who visit the "annexed" Crimea without permission of the Ukrainian government (this is typical case) are qualified as terrorists and military crimes, according to definition of these terms.
Time and place
Occupation of Crimea by Russian troops begun in February 2014, at the moment, when the Ukrainian administration suffered strong reformation, and Ukrainian military forces failed to stop the aggressors.
It is believed, that Vladimir Putin and Vladislav Surkov had sent to Ukraine terrorists and handled them in the seising of the state building and neutralising the attempts of the border guards to stop the invasion.
Russian troops who performed the occupation did not were indications, to which army do they belong. Therefore, they are qualified as terrorists. Some links about this are collected in the article Designate Russia as state sponsor of terrorism.
In order to justify the annexation, the Russian terrorists had organised the occupendum, that is considered as imitation of referendum, about status of Crimea. The illegal character of the organization, the tricky formulation of questions and the Churov's style of counting of ballots (see article Election fraud) require to create the special term occupendum for the event. Similar occupendums took place at the territories of Donbass, occupied by the Russian terrorists.
The main goals of annexation of Crimea (2014-) seem to the same as those of the other components of the Putin world war, that includes also the Russian invasion into Georgia (2008-) and the Russian invasion into Syria (2015-):
1. Making problems for the construction of new paperiness into Europe bypassing Russia, in other to keep monopoly for export of oil and natural gas into Europe. Thus goal, at least until year 2016, seem so be achieved.
2. Money laundering from the Russian budget with pretext of "help" to the people at the territories occupied by Russia. This goal, least until year 2016, seem so be achieved: the strong inflation of the Russian currency is observed, the price of rouble in 2014–2015 drops a half of its price, roughly, from 3 USA cents to 1.5 USA cents. Similar and even stronger drop of price of the Russian immobility and companies is observed; roughly, the half of treasures of the Russian people is plundered, monetarized and hidden in the of of-shores of the top of the Russian administration. Some of these of-shores are reported, see Panama Papers.
3. Plundering or properties at the occupied territories and the distribution among friends of organisers of the Putin world war; many people flee from the occupied territories, leaving their homes, gardens and business to the occupants.
5. Training of the army, that may be requested for suppression of protests to avoid the Revolution.
As in the case of Adolf Hitler, Vladimir Putin distribute awards to the soldiers, who took part in the Russian invasion into Ukraine and the "return" of Crimea. This makes the analogy of Putin's Russia and the nazi Germany even stronger. More links about this analogy are collected in articles Putin and Hitler and Putin world war.
Up to year 2015, the attempts to stop Putin do not look efficient; at least for beginning of year 2015, the expansion of Russian troops to the continental part of Ukraine continues.
Any collaboration with the occupational administration and even a visit to the occupied territories ca be qualified as unauthorised cross of the bords of Ukraine and lead to the legal persecution.
2016.02.02, the position by the European Parliament with respect to Russian annexation of Crimea is formulated.
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=MOTION&reference=B8-2016-0182&format=XML&language=EN MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION. PDF 266k DOC 67k See also joint motion for a resolution RC-B8-0173/2016 2.2.2016// PE576.543v01-00
B8-0182/2016 with request for inclusion in the agenda for a debate on cases of breaches of human rights, democracy and the rule of law pursuant to Rule 135 of the Rules of Procedure
on the situation in Crimea, in particular of the Crimean Tatars (2016/2556(RSP))
Charles Tannock, Mark Demesmaeker, Ryszard Antoni Legutko, Ryszard Czarnecki, Geoffrey Van Orden, Karol Karski, Tomasz Piotr Poręba, Angel Dzhambazki, Jana Žitňanská, Zdzisław Krasnodębski, Arne Gericke, Monica Macovei on behalf of the ECR Group NB: This motion for a resolution is available in the original language only.
European Parliament resolution on the situation in Crimea, in particular of the Crimean Tatars (2016/2556(RSP)) B8‑0182/2016 The European Parliament,
- having regard to its previous resolutions on the Eastern Partnership (EaP), Ukraine, and the Russian Federation,
- having regard to the European Council decision (21 March, 27 June, 16 July 2014) imposing sanctions on the Russian Federation as a follow-up to the illegal annexation of Crimea,
- having regard to the European Parliament resolution of 11 June 2015 on the strategic military situation in the Black Sea Basin following the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia,
- having regard to the European Parliament resolution of 21 January 2016 on Association Agreements / Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine,
- having regard to the Reports of the Human Rights Assessment Mission on Crimea conducted by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) and the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM),
- having regard to the Human Rights Watch World Report 2016 published on 27th January 2016,
A. Whereas the Russian Federation has illegally annexed Crimea, and therefore violated international law including the UN Charter, the Helsinki Final Act and the 1994 Budapest Memorandum;
B. Whereas during the illegal annexation of Crimea Russia allegedly deployed troops of the Black Sea fleet against the Crimean Tatars, Ukrainians as well as the Ukrainian soldiers, who displayed courage and loyalty to Ukraine and peacefully opposed the belligerent act of annexation;
C. Whereas the Crimean Tatar leaders, such as Mustafa Dzhemilev and Refat Chubarov, were from the outset banned from entering into Crimea and now a Russian court has issued an arrest warrant for Dzhemilev, who earlier spend 15 years in Soviet prisons for his efforts to allow his nation to return to their native land in Crimea;
D. Whereas the human rights situation in Crimea, an particularly of Crimean Tatars has dramatically deteriorated, while the Crimean Tatar intellectuals, journalists and ordinary citizens who disagree with Russian authorities regularly disappear and are found dead with signs of torture;
E. Whereas Russian authorities put on trial and still hold as prisoners Akhtem Chyihoz, Ali Asanov and Mustafa Dehermendzhi, who on February 26, 2014 took part in peaceful rally in front of local parliament of Crimea in defence of their fatherland against Russian occupying troops.
F. Whereas the Ukrainian language has been removed from the public sphere, often through use of force; whereas Christian churches independent of Moscow have seen restrictions put on their activities;
G. Whereas on 12 November, 2015, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted a resolution in which it recognized the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944 as genocide;
H. Whereas Ukraine seeks to start talks about de-occupation of Crimea in the Geneva plus format including EU and states that signed the Budapest Memorandum: Ukraine, Russia, United States, and the United Kingdom; whereas Russia refused to hold any talks on returning Crimea to Ukraine;
I. Whereas Russia refused to sign new energy supply contract with Kiev in protest against wording implying that Crimea is part of Ukraine; whereas Russia declared state of emergency in Crimea; whereas Russia in opposition to inter alia DCFTA EU-Ukraine imposed trade restrictions against Ukraine, including ban on food imports;
1. condemns systemic violation by the Russian occupation authorities of the fundamental rights and liberties of local population, particularly targeting the Crimean Tatars and ethnic Ukrainians, including numerous and continuous cases of murders, tortures and intimidations;
2. condemns biased and selective criminal prosecutions against Crimean Tatar and pro-Ukrainian activists and organisations, including leaders of Crimean Tatar people Mustafa Dzhemilev and Refat Chubarov;
3. calls the Russian authorities to immediately release from illegal imprisonment Oleg Sentsov, Nadia Savchenko, who are kept in Russia as political prisoners, as well as all other Ukrainian citizens illegally detained in Russia and at the territory of the illegally annexed Crimea, including citizens of Crimea Tatar ethnicity including Akhtem Chyihoz, Ali Asanov and Mustafa Dehermendzhi;
4. condemns militarisation of the Crimean peninsula and Russia's threats to deploy nuclear weapons in Crimea, which constitutes significant threat to the regional, European and global security;
5. calls Russia to withdraw of all its forces from Ukraine including eastern Ukraine as well as Crimea, including the Black Sea fleet troops, which allegedly took part in the illegal annexation of Crimea.
6. calls the Council to elaborate the next set of sanctions against Russia regarding its illegal annexation of Crimea, since Russia refuses to stop violation of human rights in Crimea and the militarisation of the peninsula;
7. calls the Council and the EEAS to strengthen pressure on Russia to allow access of international organisations to Crimea for monitoring human rights situation in view of the ongoing gross violations of fundamental freedoms and human rights in the peninsula, establishing permanent international monitoring and conventional mechanisms; to stress that any international presence on the ground should to be coordinated with Ukraine and include the leading role of the Council of Europe's Commissioner for Human Rights;
8. Calls for better access for international human rights monitoring organisations to all cases of serious human rights abuses in Crimea; calls on the Ukrainian Government to use all means at its disposal to investigate and prosecute war crimes committed on its territory; calls on the international community, including the Hague Tribunal, to commence an investigation into the potential crimes committed during the illegal annexation of Crimea and afterwards; 9. supports initiative of Ukraine to establish international negotiation mechanism on reestablishment of Ukrainian sovereignty over Crimea in the “Geneva plus” format;
10. calls Russia to start negotiations with Ukraine and other parties on de-occupation of Crimea, lifting trade and energy embargos and to recall state of emergency in Crimea;
11. welcomes recent declarations of Turkey on Ukraine and Crimea, which are more consistent with the positions of Member States, EU and NATO;
12. instructs President to forward this resolution to to the Council, the Commission, the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the Member States, the President of Ukraine, the governments and parliaments of the Eastern Partnership countries and of the Russian Federation, and the Parliamentary Assemblies of the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
- http://antikor.com.ua/articles/37818-arhivy_vskryty._okazyvaetsja_90_let_nazad_ukraina_byla_v_16_raza_boljshe_chem_teperj Архивы вскрыты. Оказывается 90 лет назад Украина была в 1,6 раза больше чем теперь. 20 апреля 2015 г., 22:45:00.
- 2014.03.25. http://news.liga.net/news/politics/1117068-minoborony_rf_vruchilo_aksenovu_medal_za_vozvrashchenie_kryma.htm Минобороны России учредило медаль "За возвращение Крыма". 25.03.2014 12:12. Министр Шойгу первую медаль вручил непризнанному Украиной и мировым сообществом самопровозглашенному главе крымского правительства. Министерство обороны Российской Федерации учредило новую ведомственную награду - медаль "За возвращение Крыма". Об этом сообщила пресс-служба ведомства. Первым медаль получил самопровозглашенный премьер-министр Крыма Сергей Аксенов. Также получили медали командование Черноморского флота РФ, российские морпехи и изменившие присяге бывшие бойцы спецподразделения "Беркут".
- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Krim_Shield.jpg http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krimschild Der Krimschild war ein Kampfabzeichen der deutschen Wehrmacht in Form eines Ärmelschildes, das während des Zweiten Weltkriegs verliehen wurde.
- http://cyxymu.livejournal.com/1533473.html по стопам фюрера. Apr. 23rd, 2014 at 5:02 PM.
- http://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=709170 Leipziger Münzhandlung und Auktion Heidrun Höhn. Drittes Reich - Anlässe 1938. Silbermedaille (Hanisch-Conceé). Anschluß Österreichs - Befreite Ostmark. Kopf Hitlers nach rechts / Innbrücke zu Braunau, darüber Doppeladler hinter Hakenkreuz. Randpunze: HAUPTMÜNZAMT WIEN. 36 mm, 21,26 g. Co.-H. 113. Mattiert, min. Randfehler, fast prägefrisch
HOUSE OF LORDS. European Union Committee 6th Report of Session 2014–15. The EU and Russia: before and beyond the crisis in Ukraine.
Ordered to be printed 10 February 2015 and published 20 February 2015.
199. Other witnesses also listed a series of Russian contraventions of international law in the course of the annexation of Crimea,
non - intervention provisions in the United Nations Charter;
the Helsinki Final Act of 1975;
the 1990 Paris Charter (the tenets of which are that borders of countries are not rewritten by force and all states enjoy equal security and equal rights to choose their own alliances);
the 1997 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Russia and Ukraine (which requires Russia to respect Ukraine’s territorial integrity). ..
- http://www.un.org/press/en/2014/ga11493.doc.htm General Assembly Adopts Resolution Calling upon States Not to Recognize Changes in Status of Crimea Region. 27 March 2014.
- http://www.newrepublic.com/article/116875/hillary-clinton-compares-putin-hitler-over-crimea-ukraine Marc Tracy. Joining Internet Commenters Everywhere, Hillary Clinton Compares Putin to Hitler. MARCH 5, 2014. Speaking at a charity fundraiser Tuesday in California, former Secretary of State and putative future presidential candidate Hillary Clinton compared Russian President Vladimir Putin to Adolph Hitler, reported BuzzFeed’s Ruby Cramer, citing two attendees, one of whom spoke on the record. // Specifically, Clinton reportedly homed in on the fact that two weeks ago—before the present crisis reached full boil—the Russian consulate in Crimea’s capital was handing out passports to Russians living in the peninsula. It’s not clear from Cramer’s article to what exactly Clinton was comparing this. Putin’s actions regarding Crimea have been compared to the Anschluss, in which Hitler annexed largely German Austria in 1938, and to the annexation of the Sudetenland, a predominantly German part of Czechoslovakia, also in 1938. Alternatively, Hitler resettled hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans in newly conquered territories to the east as part of his broader project of uniting the German people under a common regime and also providing them with the Lebensraum, or “living room,” they deserved (something he was able to do thanks to the non-aggression pact he signed with Joseph Stalin).
- http://www.slobodnaevropa.org/content/zubov-the-annexation-of-crimea-as-the-anschluss-of-austria-in-1938/26652979.html A. Zubov: The annexation of Crimea as the Anschluss.. Oct 23, 2014
- http://euromaidanpress.com/2014/03/05/andrey-zubov-professor-at-philosophy-department-of-moscow-state-university-of-international-affairs-was-fired-after-he-published-a-critique-of-the-looming-russian-military-intervention-in-crimea/ Anna Palagina, Mariana Budjeryn and Robin Rohrback. Andrey Zubov, professor at philosophy department of Moscow State University of International Affairs, was fired after he published a critique of the looming Russian military intervention in Crimea. 2014.03.05.
2015.05.05. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/news-room/content/20150504IPR49639/html/Russia-has-transformed-Black-Sea-military-landscape-say-foreign-affairs-MEPs Russia has transformed Black Sea military landscape, say foreign affairs MEPs. Press release - Security and defence − 05-05-2015 - 14:38. If Russia does not apply the Minsk ceasefire deals in full and return Crimea to Ukraine, the EU should step up sanctions and consider the possibility of providing Ukraine with defensive arms, say Foreign Affairs Committee MEPs in a resolution voted on Monday. Returning Crimea is vital to the EU’s long-run cooperation with Russia and EU countries must also step up their own defence capabilities, says the text, which looks at Black Sea Basin military changes since Russia illegally annexed Crimea.
2015.06.23. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/06/23/crimean-gangland-putin-s-seaside-mafia-state.html Andrea Chalupa. LIFE UNDER OCCUPATION06.23.15 5:25 AM ET.
2015.09.27. https://www.facebook.com/ivana.lotoshynski/videos/10205227436071556/ Protest at the Russian Embassy 2015.09.27: "Free Nadia Savchenko", "Crimea is Ukraine", ets.
2015.12.29. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/disislerinden-kirim-tatar-taburu-aciklamasi/497752 Dışişleri'nden 'Kırım Tatar Taburu' açıklaması. Dışişleri Sözcüsü Bilgiç, basında yer alan, Türkiye'nin Kırım'daki bazı birliklere destek verdiği yönündeki haberlerin gerçek dışı olduğunu ifade etti. 29.12.2015. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Sözcüsü Tanju Bilgiç, Türkiye'nin “Kırım Tatar Taburu, Noman Çelebicihan Taburu" gibi gönüllü birliklere destek verdiği yönündeki iddiaların gerçek dışı olduğunu belirtti. Bilgiç, bir soruya verdiği yazılı cevapta, bazı basın yayın organlarında yer alan, “Kırım Tatar Taburu, Noman Çelebicihan Taburu” adlarıyla anılan, Ukrayna'nın Herson vilayetinde oluşturulacağı ifade edilen gönüllü birliklere, Türkiye'nin destek verdiği veya vereceği yönündeki iddiaların gerçek dışı olduğunu vurguladı. Tanju Bilgiç, şunları kaydetti: "Bu asılsız iddialar üzerine Rus tarafınca yapılan 'Rusya'nın bir kez daha sırtından vurulduğu' yönündeki açıklamalar ise son dönemde ülkemize karşı yürütülen kara propagandanın devamı niteliğindedir. Türkiye, Kırım’ın yasa dışı ilhakını tanımamıştır ve tanımayacaktır. Kırım Tatarlarının hak ve hürriyetlerinin korunması yönündeki çabalarını da kararlılıkla sürdürecektir."
2016.03.15. http://ukraine.usembassy.gov/statements/crimea-03152016.html Second Anniversary of Russia’s Attempted Annexation of Crimea U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE Office of the Spokesperson STATEMENT BY JOHN KIRBY, SPOKESPERSON. March 15, 2016. Today, as Russia’s occupation of Crimea enters its third year, we reaffirm our commitment to a united, sovereign Ukraine. The United States does not recognize Russia’s "referendum” of March 16, 2014 or its attempted annexation of Crimea, which violates international law. // We remain deeply concerned by the situation in Russian-occupied Crimea, where occupation “authorities” suppress dissent and where ethnic and religious minorities -- especially Crimean Tatars and ethnic Ukrainians -- face serious and ongoing repression. Nongovernmental organizations and independent media are still being silenced or driven out, and international observers are still denied access to the peninsula. // We will not accept the redrawing of borders by force in the 21st century. Sanctions related to Crimea will remain in place as long as the occupation continues. We again call on Russia to end that occupation and return Crimea to Ukraine.
2016.03.18. http://eeas.europa.eu/top_stories/2016/180316_illegal-annexation-of-crimea_en.htm Illegal annexation of Crimea by Russian Federation. 18/03/2016. // Today the High Representative, Mogherini, released a declaration on behalf of all EU Member States on the illegal annexation of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol by the Russian Federation. Two years ago, Russia illegally annexed the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a gross violation of international law and of the territorial integrity of Ukraine.// The EU remains committed to fully implementing its non-recognition policy, including through restrictive measures and sanctions. .. // The EU is deeply concerned at the military build-up on the Crimean peninsula and the deteriorating human rights situation, particularly that of freedom of expression, peaceful assembly, religion and belief. ..
2016.03.21. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/foreign-secretary-denounces-russias-continued-illegal-annexation-of-crimea Foreign Secretary denounces Russia’s continued illegal annexation of Crimea. 21 March 2016. Foreign Secretary calls for Russia to return Crimea to Ukraine two years after illegal annexation.
2016.05.01. http://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article154915724/Mit-Staerke-und-Abschreckung-auf-Russland-reagieren.html Alain Barluet, Bernard Bridel, Philippe Regnier, Christoph B. Schilds. "Mit Stärke und Abschreckung auf Russland reagieren". Moskau habe illegal die Krim annektiert und verletze internationales Recht. Nato-Generalsekretär Jens Stoltenberg erklärt, warum die Nato-Präsenz im östlichen Bündnisgebiet erhöht werden soll. 01.05.16
2016.12.02. https://www.fleetmon.com/maritime-news/2016/16191/sky-moon-arrested-calling-crimea-ports-ukraine/ Mikhail Voytenko in Maritime Security. General cargo vessel SKY MOON was detained by Ukrainian Coast Guard on Nov 30 on Danube river in Ukrainian waters, for violating Ukrainian ban on calling annexed Crimean ports. Dec. 2, 2016 at 04:02 by
2019.12.10. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/un-resolution-condemns-russias-occupation-of-crimea/2019/12/09/952579a4-1ae4-11ea-977a-15a6710ed6da_story.html Edith M. Lederer. UN resolution condemns Russia’s occupation of Crimea. Dec. 10, 2019 at 9:32 a.m. GMT+9 UNITED NATIONS — The U.N. General Assembly approved a resolution Monday condemning Russia’s occupation of Crimea and the city of Sebastapol and urging the withdrawal of its military forces “without delay.”
2020.03.oo. https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/UKRAINE-2019-HUMAN-RIGHTS-REPORT.pdf UKRAINE 2019 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2019/ United States Department of State • Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. .. Occupation authorities allegedly selectively seized property belonging to ethnic Ukrainians and Crimean Tatars. According to the August UN secretary-general’s special report, during the year the HRMMU “received information about numerous cases of allocation of land plots to formerly displaced persons in Crimea, including Crimean Tatars, free of charge, as part of plans to legalize the unauthorized appropriation of land or allocation of alternative land plots.” .. Occupation authorities announced the labor laws of Ukraine would not be in effect after 2016 and that only the laws of the Russian Federation would apply. Occupation authorities imposed the labor laws and regulations of the Russian Federation on Crimean workers, limited worker rights, and created barriers to freedom of association, collective bargaining, and the ability to strike. Trade unions are formally protected under Russian law but limited in practice. As in both Ukraine and Russia, employers were often able to engage in antiunion discrimination and violate collective bargaining rights. The pro-Russian authorities threatened to nationalize property owned by Ukrainian labor unions in Crimea. Ukrainians who did not accept Russian citizenship faced job discrimination in all sectors of the economy. Only holders of Russian national identification cards were allowed to work in “government” and municipal positions. Labor activists believed that unions were threatened in Crimea to accept “government” policy without question and faced considerable restrictions on advocating for their members.