# Place of science

Place of science is the upgrade of article Place of science in the human knowledge.
Few errors are corrected. References are updated: in the original, some links do not open.

Place of science in the human knowledge

Dmitrii Koznetsov

Abstract

The simple model for the classification of knowledge is suggested. The four types of knowledge are considered: customs, arts, religions and sciences. The strict definition of science is suggested to distinguish it from other kinds of knowledge and from pseudo-science. The model indicates the methodology of the scientific research that is aimed to avoid conflicts between science and other kinds of knowledge. This approach is suggested to exclude some concepts from the scientific knowledge by some formal criteria at very beginning of the consideration.

Keywords: Fundementals of physics; metodology; Mizugadro; physical mathematics; religion; science; TORI Axioms.

## 1. Preface

Fig.1. Idea of inertioids [1]

This research is motivated by huge amount of fake results. Many of them pretend to be scientific.

Especially grave the frauds are in Russia, due to the total corruption [2].

An example of a fraud is development of inertioids at the Russian Khrinichev Space research center. The famous inertioid, installed at the satellite Yubileiny, is called Gravitsapa, after the fantastic device from movie Kin-dza-dza [3][4][5].
The idea of such a device is shown in Fig.1. The leaders of the Russian cosmic program claim, that, using movement of particles inside the device, the satellite moves from one orbit to another.

The bulletin [6] collects warnings about the danger tendencies in the development of the Russian science in century 21, and indicates many cases of the abuse.

The abilities of pseudo-scientists to publish tricks greatly exceed the abilities of enthusiasts to analyze and to criticise them. Then, the budget used for the money laundering, leaving no support for the scientific research. We need formal criteria to identify peseudo-scientific results. Such criteria are main topic of this article. The criteria use the classification [7][8] of the Human knowledge, mentioned in the title.

Error at Soviet textbook

Often, it is supposed, that the scientific research is true, correct, and the pseudo-scientific research is false, wrong, non-correct; so, for the qualification of any concept, it is sufficient to check it, to verify it, and, if it is wrong, to reject is. Such a common sense looks reasonable, but the abilities of pseudo-scientists to write the wrong papers and get foundation for pseudo-science greatly exceeds the abilities of scientists to criticize them, to reveal errors and to indicate, that some research is just wrong.

In this paper, the different approach is suggested. The idea is not to criticize each wrong concept, but to suggest the narrow definition of term “Science" in such a way, that any concept can be qualified as “scientific" or “non-scientific", whenever this concept is correct or wrong. This cannot substitute the common sense, mentioned above, but gives some formal criteria, that allow to reduce the amount of results, that deserve serious consideration.

Many Russian colleagues at school had to accept the strange concepts:
1. Our Universe is infinite both in space and in time.
2. For photosynthesis, the green leaves use the central part of the visible spectrum of solar light.
3. The gradual evolution of a species with genotype of 48 chromosomes (monkey) led to the new specie with genotype of 46 chromosomes (mankind).
4. The communism in the USSR will occur within 20 years (The Current Generation of Soviet People Will Live Under Communism) [9][10]

Such concepts were suggested at the Soviet schools as a “scientific truths". However, they are neither true, nor even scientific. At least they do not fit the definition of science, suggested below in section 8.

The Soviet veterans continue their attempts to declare the postulates of Sovietism (that, are I think, just wrong) as a truth, as scientific facts; the attempts to understand, what happened in century 20, why the communism was not built-up, why the USSR collapsed, why Russia become a base of prime products, etc. are declared as ‘pseudoscience’ and ‘false history’ [11][12][13]

## 3. Karl Popper and Objectivity

K.Popper, 1980's

In century 20, Karl Popper had formulated the criteria, that allows to identify the special, extremely efficient kind of human knowledge [14][15][16]

He called it science, although term science is used before in a little bit different meaning; that meaning included the claim of objectivity: I frame no hypothesis, Isaac Newton wrote [17].

Roughly speaking, the science was considered to be a truth, that does not need any refutation.

Popper, contrary, suggests the criterion of refutability as the key property of science, modifying the meaning of term “science".

For Popper, the thing that makes a concept scientific is not its objectivity, but the possibility to verify it,to falsify it, to criticise it arguably and to refute it [14]:

1. It is easy to obtain confirmations, or verifications, for nearly every theory - if we look for confirmations.

2. Confirmations should count only if they are the result of risky predictions; that is to say, if, unenlightened by the theory in question, we should have expected an event which wasincompatible with the theory - an event which would have refuted the theory.

3. Every “good" scientific theory is a prohibition: it forbids certain things to happen. The more a theory forbids, the better it is.

4. A theory which is not refutable by any conceivable event is non-scientific. Irrefutability is not a virtue of a theory (as people often think) but a vice.

5. Every genuine test of a theory is an attempt to falsify it, or to refute it. Testability is falsifiability; but there are degrees of testability: some theories are more testable, more exposed to refutation, than others; they take, as it were, greater risks.

6. Confirming evidence should not count except when it is the result of a genuine test of the theory;and this means that it can be presented as a serious but unsuccessful attempt to falsify the theory. (I now speak in such cases of “corroborating evidence".)

7. Some genuinely testable theories, when found to be false, are still upheld by their admirers - for example by introducing ad hoc some auxiliary assumption, or by reinterpreting the theory ad hoc in such a way that it escapes refutation. Such a procedure is always possible, but it rescues the theory from refutation only at the price of destroying, or at least lowering, its scientific status.

The requirement of refutability opposes the believe in the ability to get some objective knowledge [18]:
Objective truth is that part of our knowledge which correctly reflects reality and does not depend uponthe subject, i.e. on human consciousness and will. Objective method, therefore, means the method, that leads to knowledge of objective truth. For materialism, ‘the recognition of objective truth is fundamental’; consequently all materialist science must be objective in method.

There where were some doubts about the humanitarian science, but the objectivity of the natural sciences was believed to be well established and irrefutable. Popper denies even this belief. This point of view was not accepted [19] by several researchers; they suggest the non-refutable concepts, in hope, that they do namely science, but not a religion. However, the qualification of such activity as a science or a religion depends on definitions of terms science and religion. This indicates the need to elaborate the appropriate definitions; they are provided below in the special sections. The human knowledge is classified a way, that does not allow science to deal with non-refutable concepts.

The classification suggested includes only 4 categories: Customs, Arts, religions and sciences. The four next sections describe them.

## 4. Customs

Fig.2. Example of custom [20]

The category of customs includes not only the commonly accepted behavior of humans, but also the habitual semantics of commonly used human languages. Even the custom habit to drink vodka from the bottle, shown in Fig.2, should be considered as knowledge.

Customs are the meanings of words. At least part of semantics appears as a custom.

The usual meaning of the Bible is a custom, widely accepted in the Christian community. The sentence You shall love your neighbor as yourself allows various interpretations [21][22], dependently on the meaning of the word love and its Hebrew and Aramaic equivalents. Some interpretations are not popular, they are not customs. The interpretations of the New Testament by Tim Rice [23] and that Michael Bulgakov [24], due to the wide spreading, can be qualified not only as an art, but also as a custom, at least in certain literature or musical communities. Such an interpretation should be qualified a knowledge. In such a way, the meaning of words appear as a knowledge.

The folklore also falls in the category of custom. It is any knowledge that is difficult to investigate by the any systematic methods. Any legend, story, narration leaves from category folklore, from category custom and becomes art or even science (history), as soon as it is written, published, exposed and considered in a scientific way as a historic evidence.

The semantics of the human languages and their understanding, the meaning of words is important part of a language. It forms the most important part of the human knowledge. Namely this kind of knowledge gives sense to other kinds of knowledge, considered below.

## 5. Art

Fig.3. Five examples of works by various artists [25][26][27][28][29]

Few examples of objects I consider as art [30] are shown in Fig. 3.

In order to be more specific, I suggest the definition below:

Art is any kind of knowledge that is free from internal rules and is realized in a reproducible form that allow its systematic investigation.

Such a definition corresponds to a goal formulated in the introduction, although it slightly reduces the set of things which could be called art. Usually, a product of art has the following properties:

A1. Beauty: Here, the beauty is the extensive ability of any unexpected use. The prehistoric hunter, painting and observing an image of an animal on a rock, may guess how to catch this animal; the reader, laughing on a comedy, may ask himself: Either I am free from all the evils shown? - although the primary goal could be just laugh.

A2. Absence of structure: Intents to bring rules into the arts are not efficient. The arts use all other knowledges; the same product may have both artistic and scientific value.

A3. Wisdom: A painter, a writer, any artists with their works say more, than they planned to say, and more, than they understand by themselves. In this sense, the product of art may be wiser than theauthor.

A4. Entirety: Intents to correct, to improve a product of art destroy it.

A5. Amoralism: Creatures, that have goal to bring some moral to the society, have low artistic value, if at all; the creature may violate any taboo of the society, including the religious ones. There are special sciences about the art.

Aiming the specific application of the classification, the topics of customs and arts are presented here only declaratively.

## 6. Religions

Knowledge rith some structural elements, canons is qualified as religion. Few general concepts of religion are illustrated in Fig.4:

Fig. 4. Religions: Illustrations by S.Tihomirov[31], V.Shmakov[32], O.Kuvaev[33]

Religion is kind of the human knowledge, based on some (specific for each religion) set of irrefutable concepts, believes, texts, symbols and performances. [34]

Usually, any religion is characterized in the most of following:

R1. The existence of at least one God is presumed.
R2. There exist canonical sacred text, that allow the humans to guess the will of God(s) and follow it.
R3. God like some actions of human, these actions are called Good.
R4. God dislike some actions of human, these actions are called Evil.
R5. The suggested set of concepts pretends to play an organizing role in the society: following to namely this religion is presumed to provide abilities for the kindness, prudence and wisdom significantly wider, than any other religion.

It this article, God is generic term denoting any intelligent subject that in some way (that is not available for humans) has abilities that greatly exceed those of a human. Actions related to these abilities are called miracles, marvels.

God may look like a human (Jesus Christ, Buddha, Lenin), but also can be “non-material" (God - HolySpirit, World Revolution, Marxism). God may be omnipotent (almighty), invincible, immortal and predicts future:

The Marxist doctrine is omnipotent because it is true. [35]

Long live invincible marxism-leninism-mao tsetung tonight. [36]

Lenin lived, Lenin lives, and Lenin will live. [37]

The generation of those who are now fifteen will see a communist society, and will itself build this society [9]

The immortal beacon of Comrade Stalin will forever illuminate the path on which the Chinese people march forward. [38]

Then he said to Abram, Know for a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, four hundred years, and shall serve them: and they entreat them evil. [39]

World religions, each in their own way, offer a unique set of moral values and rules to guide human beings in their relationship with the environment [40].

Often, such rules are presumed to be truth without limits and alternatives:

The law of the LORD is perfect, restoring the soul; The testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. [41]

Anyone who desires something other than Islam as a religion will never have it accepted from him, while in the Hereafter he will be among the losers. [42]

Some religions do not identify themselves as religions, pretending to be sciences [43][44].

The adepts consider their own belief as the only true concept, deny the dogmatic character of their believes [45] and treat any deviant behavior as crime, heresy and mental illness; the wrong-believers are punished or undergo the forced medical treatment [46][47][48][49].

Some religions justify lies, sacrifices, betrays, massacre, murdering and wars, if they serve the needs of God:

Most of religions avoid any refutable concepts. The concept is called refutable, if (and only if) in terms of this concept, some specific observation can be described, that negates the concept. For example, the statement The Current Generation of Soviet People Will Live Under Communism [51] is refutable: based of such a declaration, the next generations (say, since year 1980) may shame, judge, punish, execute the Soviet veterans as liars and impostors; in addition to the punishement for the war crimes, committed since the beginning of the USSR. However, the Sovetism approves and defends any crimes of the Soviet fuhrers with concept You cannot make revolution in white gloves, such a concept justifies any kind of genocide, even if 90% of population are killed with such a slogan [52].

Within few generations after creation of a new religion, it abandons and forgets all its refutable concepts and becomes more stable. Here are the examples of irrefutable concepts:

God blesses America. [53]

Imperialism is evil.[54]

God gives the immortal soul to everyone. [55][56]

The righteous will be at Heaven. [57]

Socialism and communism are the future of Humanity. [58]

However, the last statement becomes refutable (and just wrong) as soon as it is applied to the specific country of century 20, see 1961.ProgramKPSS and "The_Current_Generation_of_Soviet_People_Will_Live_Under_Communism".

The canonical texts of religion describes the marvels, miracles that are specific for each religion. The miracle may refer to the magic conversion of water into vine, to the drastic increase of the efficiency of the production by the inspiration of the Führer, catching of the spies by children, destruction of an army of the enemy tanks by several heroic soldiers launching grenades, etc.. The honest and efficient pray, magia also can be considered as a marvel.

Not all religions pretend to be "the only truth". So-called civil religions recognize themselves as only parts of the human knowledge [59][60][61][62]. Such a recognition makes the civil religions efficient in stabilization of a society on the efficient development, favoring development of prudence, technology and science.

Religions form significant part of the human knowledge and play important role in the human history.
While a religion is tolerant with respect to other kinds of knowledge (and in particular, to other religions), it may assist the prosper development of the society. No one religion can substitute other kinds of knowledge, end even other religions, as one specific science cannot substitute all other sciences.
Any society, where one religion dominates in an aggressive way, becomes barbarian compared to other countries within few generations; the people of such a society lose the ability to analyze the information.

## 7. Sciences

Fig.5. How to draw Science? Illustrations by [63], [64], [65], [66], [67]

As it is mentioned in the second section, the term “science" may have different meanings. Following K. Popper, in this article, this term applies only to a refutable knowledge. In order to distinguish science at the background of pseudoscience and religion, the term science should be defined as follows:

Science is kind of knowledge, activity and notations, based on concepts that have all the six properties below:

S1. Applicability: Each concept has the limited range of validity, distinguishable from the empty set.

S2. Verifiability: In the terms of the already accepted concepts, some specific experiment with some specific result, that confirms the concept, can be described.

S3. Refutability: In the terms of the concept, some specific experiment with some specific result, that negates the concept, can be described.

S4. Self-consistency: No internal contradictions of the concept are known.

S5. Principle of correspondence: It the range of validity of a new concept intersects the range of validity of another already accepted concept, then, the new concept either reproduces the results of the old concept, or indicates the way to refute it. (For example, the estimate of the range of validity of the old concept may be wrong.)

S6. Pluralism: Mutually-conflicting concepts may coexist. The coexistence of mutually-conflicting concepts, satisfying requirements S1-S5 above is allowed. If two concepts satisfying S1-S5 havesome common range of validity, then, in this range, the simplest of them has priority and should beconsidered as main, principal.

In the definition of science, all the six properties are compulsory. For example, if the range of validity of a concept is the full set (id est, the concept is valid every time and everywhere), then, by definition, it is not scientific, as it does not satisfy the criterion S1, and there is no need to checkproperties S2-S6 to qualify such a concept as non-scientific.

Scientific concepts are built on the base of observations, experiments, definitions, axioms, hypothesis, theorems and theories.

Observation means identification of some phenomena which are in some sense similar.

Definitions allow to use compact notations, making the description of scientific concept shorter and simpler.

Axioms are statements that are considered as initial at the building-up of some concept. Set of few concepts with commonly accepted axioms is called “paradigm".

Theorems are statements that are proven on the base of axioms and definitions. Sometimes, this term is used even in those cases then the proof of the statement is not yet constructed, but is expected to be constructed in future. In such a case, term “hypothesis" or “Conjecture" is more suitable.

If the hypothesis is deduced from the postulates and other, already proven theorems, it becomes theorem. If a hypothesis had predicted some non-trivial results of observations or experiments, it becomes theory.

Activity, related with development of new concepts is called research. The most important classification of sciences is based on the subject of the research, the goal and the methods, that dominate in the research: humanitarian - natural, fundamental - applied and theoretic - experimental.

In principle, such a structure could be applied to all the sciences. Not all sciences are developed sufficiently to allow the use of the full scheme above. The search for “mathematics in history” return links about history of mathematics: the historians describe history of mathematics rather than use mathematics in description of historical events. The known exception is the prediction of collapse of the USSR in century 20 by Andrei Amalrik [77], “calculated” the collapse of the USSR during century 20, see Will the Soviet Union Survive until 1984 [68].

Since century 21, the calculus, the mathematics enter to all sciences, even to psychiarty [69]

## 8. Hierarchy of sciences

Mathematics makes the basis of other sciences. No one science dare to contradict mathematics. The computational mathematics and cybernetics provides a bridge between mathematics and other knowledge. The general physics and theoretical physics relate mathematics with other sciences, although some sciences (even humanitarian ones) may use, for example, the statistical methods without to refer to physics. All the sciences use logics, (Boolean algebra); usually it is so obvious, that it is not even declared.

Physics is considered so fundamental as mathematics. There are several examples, when the laws of physics are broken in sci-fi literature. But there is only one example detected, where the laws of mathematics are broken in phantascic novel, see Mizugadro number dream. (That sci-fi had been written to get at least one example of braking of laws of mathematics in fantastic literature.)

Usually, all other sciences respect physics and mathematics. However, the organizers of a financial pyramid may claim, that all the participants get their benefits (that contradict the law of arithmetics). In the similar way, the frauders may claim, that the sum of momenta of particles moving inside an inertioid, depend on order of the summation, that leads to violation of law of conservation of momentum, as it is shown in Fig.1. However, in both such cases, the claim should be qualified as a fiction or as a fraud.

If some science, concept contradicts the basic paradigms of mathematics or physics, then, according to S5, there should be indicated a way to see, that the commonly accepted paradigms are wrong. To avoid the confusions, the term science should be used only in the sense of the definition above. In all other cases, terms pseudoscience, sovietscience, christianscience, quasiscience may be used to specify, that some activity or knowledge looks similar to science or similar to a scientific research.

## 9. Science and the society

Usually the sciences, and especially the fundamental ones do not give a fast benefit. The spending of the budget funding to support the satisfaction of the personal curiosity of researchers requires some justification. There were intents to submit the development of science to other goals (creation of facilities of the modernization of the industry, or increasing of the military power of a country, etc.). Some researches, especially applied ones, can be motivated in such a way; and sometimes the results have the scientific value. However, often the results of such a research are just fake. During the human history, there was not developed more efficient motivation for science, than curiosity of researchers who do it. Yet, there is no other way to make the deep science. However, the needs of industry can be mentioned as motivation for the financial support of the curiosity of researchers.

The distribution of funds assigned for the development of science is serious problem. Administrators of funds cannot drill deeply into the research they finance. The funds are distributed on the base of the formal criteria: publications, citation, participation in the conferences. The ability to write the grant applications and good relations with colleagues and the distributors of funds become important, if not dominant, factor in the success in the getting of the financial support. For the same reason, the spectacular nature of the new effects is important for its promotion.

Especially non-efficiently the funds are sent in the countries with corrupted bureaucracy; and not only because the significant part of foundation is spent for bribes and the private security. The government being unable to keep the growth of the technology of the country at the international level begins to secret the scientific achievements in order to enable the monopolistic use in the military industry. Often, the results are fake: the secrecy protects them from critics and opens wide field for both wanted and unwanted errors.

In a totalitarian country, some sciences are not only left without foundation, but are affected by the physical repression of researchers, as it happened in the USSR with the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, cybernetics and genetics. [70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77].

Previously, in Europe, in the epoch of the Holy Inquisition, the similar phenomena took place with respect to astronomy and astronomers.

Perhaps, in some cases, the executors, destructing the science, indeed do not understand, that they act against the human civilization and against interests of their country; they do not consider themselves as bloody murderers, not as enemies of the people of their country. In such a case, the qualification, classification of the the human knowledge may help. The properties 1-6 allow to separate scientific concepts from others without fighting the pseudosciences [78].

## 10. Terminology

Often the errors are caused by a smooth, fussy definitions of terms and the concepts.

The most crying examples refer to the humanitarian science.

In 2009, Dmitry Medvedev had announced the setting up of a commission to counter the falsification of history [79][80]. This makes the Russian concept of history non-refutable (not falisifiable) and disqualifies it as a science. There is still hope, that this is just terminological confusion, and that commission does not have aim to destroy the historic science. The aim of this paper is not to provoke conflicts, but to mitigate them. Therefore, I suggest not to use words “falsification", “falsifiability", at least in the scientific texts. Such terms are ambiguous, they may mean either the negation of a concept for the contradiction to observations or the misinformation.

Any term that has two opposite meanings should not be used at all. With respect to historical texts (whenever they scientific or not), the terms revisionism, opportunism and reformism appear in the similar (ambiguous) meaning [81][82], but the term refutability does not yet seem to be used in such a way.

In this paper, the term “refutability" is used. However, if refutation of the Russian official version of history will be also prohibited, then will be no way to attribute the confusion to terminology, and that concept should be qualified as non-scientific. This would not be a big loss, because the Soviet concept of history (Sovetism) anyway is just wrong; it is full of internal contradictions and disagree with visual observation of that happened to the USSR in century 20.

## 11. Importance for physics

The author would not like to teach colleagues, what to write and how to write, but just indicate, what properties make the research scientific. This section explains, why I boil up so old question, and why it is important for physics.

The author used to meet several “strange" concepts, that pretended to be scientific. The examples are:

Estimate of the statistical significance of a “second” peak at the correlation function, using the Poissonian model of random (independent) distribution, that can be rejected due to the significant "first" peak. [83]

Quantum annihilation of the optical soliton. [84]

Extrapolation of the quasi-optical approximation in the atmospheric physics. [85]

The “radius of convergence" of the primary series of the theory of perturbation. [86]

Quantization of the magnetic flux in a free space. [87]

Violation of the Kramers-Kronig relation for the active laser materials. [88]

"Non-equivalence" of the van der Vaals potential to the index of refraction in paraxial atom optics. [89][90]

Proportional increase of the power of a disk laser at the increase of the size of the active element. [91]

The immanent impossibility of the analytic extension of tetration [92]

The square root of factorial as having "no sense" [93]

The inertioids (that violate the law of conservation of momentum, Fig.1). [94]

The author had participated in similar discussions, originated in different branches of physics. The common feature of these cases is, that the colleagues do not specify the range of validity of their concepts, do not indicate a way to refute their concepts, do not show the relations with previous results, and discuss applications of some effect without to indicate the contradictions with the scientific facts, with already commonly-accepted concepts.

In principle, there is nothing wrong in the contradiction of some experiments to some widely accepted theory. Contrary, such a revolutionary discovery is very interesting and important; it may indicate the need to revise, improve the most important concepts. However, such a contradiction is a main result of the research. Such a contradiction should be mentioned in the title, in the abstract, in the conclusion as the main achievement of the author.

if the authors found violation of rules of arithmetic, the title of the scientific article article should cry: The internal contradiction in axioms of arithmetic. But the title of a scientific publication about such a revolutionary discovery should not mention the application for recovery of agriculture (destroyed by genocide, extermination of farmers), nor making the 5-year plan of production of metal in 4 years.

Idea of use an effect, that contradicts basic laws of physics, is used as subject of humor in the sci-fi novel Tale of the Troika [95] (Сказка о Тройке 1968) by Russian writers Boris and Arkady Strugatsky. the "Troika on the Rationalization and Utilization of Unexplained Phenomena" is described. However, the same idea is used also for the money laundering at the space research centers and other secret organizations even in century 21.

## 12. More examples

For illustration of the basic idea expressed above, in addition to cases mentioned in the previous section, I consider two more examples. The examples of the concepts that, from my point of view, are not scientific (although are declared to be scientific). One of them deals with the effective cross-sections of emission in the laser material (Fig.6); another one refers to so-called “global warming" (Fig.7).

### Perpetual motion

 $$~ ~$$ $$~ ~ ~$$Recovery of $$\sigma_{\rm emission}$$ from $$\sigma_{\rm absorption}$$

Fig.6. Fake result [96][97][98] (left picture) and correction of $$\sigma_{\mathrm{emission}}$$ by the McCumber relation [99] (black line)

An example of a non-scientific concept is shown in left hand side picture of Fig.6. It is figure from Appl.Phys.Lett.[96], it shows dependence of the effective cross-section of absorption and emission of light in the Yb doped Gd2SiO5 crystal on the wavelength. However, the curves for absorption and emission, shown in the left picture, contradict the McCumber relation. Such a contradiction leads to violation of the Second Law of thermodynamics. With such a crystal, one would be able to arrange the Perpetual Motion machine. In order to avoid redistribution of fake curves, the left hand side picture is marked with red words MATERIAL FOR PERPETUAL MOTION.

Perhaps, both curves for the cross-sections in left plot of Fig.6 are wrong. The hypothesis, that the only emission is wrong, is considered; then, emission can be recovered from the absoption. Such a recovery, correction [99] is shown in the right hand side oicture of Fig.6 with black curve. (This curve is not extended to the right hand side of the plot: there, values of absorption are small, and the error of the recovery is huge.)

The Second Law of thermodynamics is scientific fact: no experiment, that break it, is known. It would be methodically correct, to claim the tremendous discovery, revision of the fundamental physical concepts. Instead, the authors claim the efficient laser material. Such a claim contradicts the 5th of the TORI Axioms (Principle of correspondence) and makes the concept non-scientific, according to the definition suggested. (However, it may still be considered as “scientific" in other system of notations, that make no difference between science and religion).

The wrong effective cross-section mentioned cannot be interpreted as occasional mistake of a single researcher. A dozen of authors have published similar curves in various scientific journals: Applied Physics Letters[96], Optics Express [97] and Solid State Communications [98]. In such a way, the error should be qualified as methodological (not an occasional mistake): the results are not revised from point of view of self-consistency (Axiom S4), nor for the principle of correspondence (Axiom S5).

From my point of view, the contradiction of results to the McCumber relation (and therefore to the Second Law of thermodynamics) should be revealed and declared by the authors before it is found by the reviewers and other colleagues.

On the first glance, the left hand side of Fig.6, if we remove words "MATERIAL FOR PERPETUAL MOTION", looks more scientific, than Fig.1 (that explains the basic principle of propulsion of the Russian satellite Yubileiny with device Gravitsapa on board [100]) and other intertioids, developed at the Russian Cosmic center). However, if we look at the meaning of quantities plotted as ordinates, we see, that the difference is not so big: in both cases, the fundamental laws of physics are broken.

The similarity goes further. In both cases, the inventors, instead of to claim, that the basic physical concepts should be revised, just declare, that their invention can be useful. Such a statement looks similar to the claims of organizers of a financial pyramid: they promise dividends to all the participants, and do not care about law of conservation of money; apparently, the laws of arithmetic in their calculus are broken.

### Global warming

Another example refers to the global warming.

Conclusion

## References

1. https://www.anekdot.ru/release/pics/day/2012-08-22/ Смагин Максим.
2. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20120426/173064569.html Marc Bennetts. Medvedev Admits Failure in Fight against Corruption. 13:24. 26/04/2012. http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/1566 D.Medvedev. Introduction at the session of the Council on resistance to corruption. 2008.09.30. (in Russian) Corruption in Russia not only got the large scale, but become the common, usual phenomenon that characterises the entire life of the Russian officials.".. коррупция в нашей стране приобрела не просто масштабные формы, масштабный характер, она стала привычным, обыденным явлением, которое характеризует саму жизнь в нашем обществе. .."
3. https://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/news/2005/ space-050329-rianovosti01.htm Andrei Kislyakov. Russia to help to develop nuclear-powered spacecraft. 2005.08.01. RUSSIA TO HELP DEVELOP NUCLEAR-POWERED SPACECRAFT// RIA Novosti// MOSCOW. (RIA Novosti political commentator Andrei KISLYAKOV)// Russia that has developed state-of-the-art rocket engines is ready to use them within the framework of the international space program. Consequently, Russia is quite eager to explore deep space with the rest of the world. // In Moscow’s opinion, such is the gist of international accords that were approved by 21 countries and 15 international organizations in the United States late this March. The concerned parties discussed interplanetary space-fiight plans that were suggested by national space agencies. A document would be expected to formalize the discussion’s results by August 2005.// Russia suggests that those involved in the Martian program use its nuclear rocket engines and propulsion units, Academician Nikolai Ponomarev-Stepnoi, vice-president of the Kurchatov Institute national research center, noted in early March. He made this statement at an international conference in Moscow that discussed nuclear-powered spacecraft.// We would develop such an engine and propulsion unit by 2017, if the relevant international decision was adopted today, Vladimir Smetannikov, chief designer of the Dollezhal R&D institute, believes. Consequently, it would be possible to launch a manned space ship toward Mars by that time.// According to Ponomarev-Stepnoi, the world’s countries understand that long-range space ights are impossible without nuclear propulsion units. Incidentally, nuclear engines can be used to accelerate spacecraft, also serving as their power-supply systems.// It should be mentioned in this connection that the Energomash science-and-production association (NPO) had developed the first Russian nuclear rocket engine back in 1981. However, its comprehensive tests never took place because of tougher nuclear environmental-safety requirements in space research. The United States also conducted similar experiments, failing to test even a prototype version. // Nonetheless, theoretically nuclear-powered rocket engines cannot be called something entirely new. For its own part, the R&D institute of space systems near Moscow is busy developing a perpetuum mobile (perpetual-motion engine), of sorts. This engine that will have a virtually unlimited service life could be used on Earth and in outer space. // Our institute’s staffers have been developing a non-jet propulsion unit for several years in a row, Valery Menshikov, who heads this institute, said in mid-March. A liquid or solid-state propulsive mass moves along a preset tornado-shaped trajectory inside this engine, thereby ensuring sustainable propulsion. Quite possibly, we are witnessing a hitherto unknown interaction between the propulsive mass and little-studied fields, including the gravitation field, Menshikov explained.
4. http://english.pravda.ru/science/tech/14-04-2009/107399-Russian_ scientists-0 Alex Naumov. Russian scientists test perpetual motion machine in space. "Pravda", 14.04.2009. Specialists of the Institute for Space Systems conducted successful tests of the perpetual motion machine in space. Valery Menshikov, the director of the institute, said that the machine was installed at Yubileiny satellite which was launched into orbit almost a year ago. The satellite can now move from one orbit to another with the help of the engine, which discharges no reaction mass.
5. https://www.pravdareport.com/science/112279-nano_satellites/ Dmitry Sudakov. Russian Scientists Test New Type of Engine for Nano Satellites. 18.02.2010 05:29. Specialists of the Russian Research Center for Space Systems are completing the tests of a unique engine based on new physical principles to obtain propulsive power, Itar-Tass reports.// The engine, which does not emit reaction mass, was installed at Yubileiny satellite, which was launched into orbit in May of 2008. The engine, which operates both autonomously and remotely, allows the satellite to move from one orbit to another. ..
6. E.P.Krugliakov. Introduction. Bulletin in defence of Science. 1, p.3-10. (In Russian) (2006); http://www.ras.ru/digest/fdigestlist/bulletin.aspx
7. https://ufn.ru/tribune/trib120111.pdf http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/PAPERS/2010mestor.pdf http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/PAPERS/2010mestoe.pdf D.Kouznetsov. Role of science and physics in the human knowledge. in Russian, prototype of this article. UFN, Tribune, 2010-2011.
8. http://pphmj.com/abstract/5076.htm http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/PAPERS/2010support.pdf Kouznetsov D, Support of non-traditional concepts. Far East Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, 1, Issue 1, p.1-6 (2010)
9. https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1920/oct/02.htm Vladimir Lenin. The Tasks of the Youth Leagues Written: October 2, 1920 Source: Collected Works, Volume 31 First Published: Pravda Nos. 221, 222 and 223, October 5, 6 and 7, 1920 Online Version: marx.org in 1997, marxists.org 1999 Transcribed: Colin S. Cavell HTML Markup: Brian Baggins and David Walters Speech Delivered At The Third All-Russia Congress of The Russian Young Communist League. .. The generation of those who are now fifteen will see a communist society, and will itself build this society.. .. We must assume that no less than ten years will be required for the electrification of the country, so that our impoverished land may profit from the latest achievements of technology. And so, the generation of those who are now fifteen years old, and will be living in a communist society in ten or twenty years’ time, should tackle all its educational tasks in such a way that every day, in every village and city, the young people shall engage in the practical solution of some problem of labour in common, even though the smallest or the simplest. ..
10. http://www.americandeception.com/index.php?page=usercat&catid=28 Programme of The Communist Party of The Soviet Union-1961 The material and technical basis of communism will be built up by the end of the second decade (1971-80), ensuring an abundance of material and cultural values for the whole population; Soviet society will come close to a stage where it can introduce the principle of distribution according to. needs, and there will be a gradual transition to one form of ownership-public ownership. Thus, a communist society will in the main be built in the U.S.S.R. .. THE PRESENT GENERATION OF SOVIET PEOPLE SHALL LIVE IN COMMUNISM!
11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8166020.stm James Rodgers. Russia acts against ’false’ history. BBC News, 24 July 2009,
12. http://vbvvbv.narod.ru/Lgenauka.htm Korukin V.I. Pseudoscience - what is behind the word? (in Russian)
13. http://www.uran.ru/ gazetanu/2003/01/nu02/wvmnu_p1a_02_012003.htm Zastyretz A. Meeting of the Presidium. (In Russian). Science of Ural, N2 (830), January 2003.
14. https://eportfolios.macaulay.cuny.edu/liu10/files/2010/08/KPopper_Falsification.pdf
http://www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/ popper_falsification.html Karl R. Popper. Science as falsification. Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations. London:Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1963, pp. 33-39.
15. https://bertie.ccsu.edu/naturesci/PhilSci/PopperArticle.html Karl Popper. Science: Conjectures and refutations. - ’Philosophy of Science: a Personal Report’, in British Philosophy in Mid-Century, ed. C. A. Mace, 1957.
16. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1961-02882-000 Popper, Karl R. The logic of scientific discovery. Oxford, England: Basic Books. (1959). 480 pp.
17. http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/Newton.html Isaac Newton. Principia mathematica. London, 1803.
18. Teplov B.M. The objective method in psychology, Sovetskaja pedagogika, 1952,7, 66-86. (inRussian; Since y.2020, not available online)
19. http://www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/gardner_popper.html Martin Gardner. A Skeptical Look at Karl Popper. Skeptical Inquirer, 25(4):13-14,72hom (2001) [18]
20. http://cartoon.kulichki.com/drunk/drun051.htm Евгений Кран. Карикатуры. 2020.06.17. Карикатура про воспитание подрастающего поколения. Памятник пионерскому горнисту. Современный пионер в той же позе пьет пиво. .. Мои карикатуры можно публиковать без разрешения автора с указанием автора Евгения Крана и источника заимствования! Для приобретения карикатур полным размером пишите карикатуристу - karikaturyhumor(собака)gmail.com skype Kranev
21. https://mccchurch.org/files/2016/08/ NotSinNotSick.pdf Elder Don Eastman. Homosexuality; not a sin, not a sickness. Los Angeles Universal Fellowship Press, 1990.
22. http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibc2.htm Robinson B.A. Homosexual passages from the Christian Scriptures. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 2008-SEP-2
23. https://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/17/theater/ theater-review-superstar-or-not-jesus-returns.html Ben Brantley. Superstar or not, ’Jesus’ returns. Published: Apr. 17, 2000, page E1.
24. http://www.nytimes.com/ 2005/12/19/arts/television/19mast.htm Paul Sonne. Russians Await a Cult Novel’s Film Debut With Eagerness and Skepticism. NewYork Times, December 19, 2005,
25. https://artcanvas.com/artists/kazimir-malevich-canvas-art-print-for-sale.html KAZIMIR MALEVICH. Hieratic Suprematist Cross. 1921.
26. http://zhurnal.lib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_ j/artr.shtml D,Kouznetsov. Art. Samizdat, 2010.
27. http://pinterest.com/pin/230950287111242293/ Stanislav Tihomirov. Girl at the Red Square.Moscow, 2005 June.53.
28. http://viktor-ch.livejournal.com/287453.html Виктор Шмаков. всё относительно... 2013-02-09 15:54:00 (in Russian)
29. https://www.mult.ru/?s=Religion Oleg Kuvaev. Main. (In Russian)
30. http://zhurnal.lib.ru/k/kuznecow_d_j/religion.shtml D.Kouznetsov. Religion. Samizdat, 2010.
31. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1913/mar/x01.htm V.I.Lenin. The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism. Lenins Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1977, Moscow, Vol.19, p.21-28.
32. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hua-guofeng/1976/09/18.htm Hua Guofeng. Memorial speech. September 18, 1976. Hua Guofeng Internet Archive, January 2004.
33. http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig7/boukhonine2.html Sergei Boukhonine. Gods 'R' Us. LewRockwell, 2006
34. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-7/mswv7_296.htm Mao Tse-tung. Telegram to the USSR on Stalin's Death. People's Daily, March 7, 1953
35. https://www.biblegateway.com/verse/en/Genesis%2015%3A13 Genesis 15:13, .. GNV // Then he said to Abram, Know for a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, four hundred years, and shall serve them: and they entreat them evil. ..
36. https://doi.org/10.7825/2164-6279.1077 https://digitalcommons.butler.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=jhcs O.P.Dwivedi Human responsibility and the Environment: A Hindu Perspective. Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies: Vol. 6, Article 8.
37. https://biblehub.com/psalms/19-7.htm Bible Bub. Psalm 19:7. .. New American Standard Bible. The law of the LORD is perfect, restoring the soul; The testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.
38. https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/3/85/default.htm AYAH al-Imran 3:85. .. T.B.Irving. Anyone who desires something other than Islam as a religion will never have it accepted from him, while in the Hereafter he will be among the losers.
39. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1385258?seq=1 Mary-Barbara Zeldin. The religious nature of Russian marxism. Journal for the Scientific Studyof Religion, 8, No.1 (1969), pp. 100-111
40. http://svonz.lenin.ru/articles/Klaus-Georg_Riegel-Marxism-Leninism_as_a_Political_Religion.pdf Klaus-Georg Riegel. Marxism-Leninism as a Political Religion. Totalitarian Movements andPolitical Religions, 6, No.1, p.97-126, June 2005.
41. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1910/dec/23.htm Lenin V.I. Certain Features of the Historical Development of Marxism. - Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, [1974], Moscow, Volume 17, pages 39-44.
42. http://www.jaapl.org/cgi/reprint/30/ 1/107.pdf Alan A. Stone, MD. Psychiatrists on the side of the angels. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 30,p.107-11, 2002.
43. http://www.jaapl.org/cgi/reprint/30/1/136.pdf Richard J. Bonnie, LLB. Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union and in China. J. AmAcad Psychiatry Law 30, p.136-44, 2002
44. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/148/3/247 Stephen F. Psychiatry and political repression in the Soviet Union. American Psychologist.37(10), 1982, 1105-1112.27.Merskey H and Shafran B. Political hazards in the diagnosis of ’sluggish schizophrenia’. TheBritish Journal of Psychiatry 148 247-256 (1986)
45. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1970-08540-00029. Thomas Stephen Szasz. The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisitionand the Mental Health Movement Oxford, 1970.
46. V.Lenin. You cannot make revolution in white gloves. https://www.quotetab.com/quote/by-vladimir-lenin/you-cannot-make-a-revolution-in-white-gloves (This sentence appears in varioussites, and attributer to Vladimir Lenin. The sites do not indicate the source. Perpaps, the originalarticle by V.Lenin with such a quite is already destroyed; ths practice is described in the novel Orwell1984.
47. http://www.americandeception.com/index.php?page=usercat&catid=28 American deseption: Uncovering the deseptive hidden truth. .. Programme_of_The_Communist_Party_of_The_Soviet_Union-19 61-128pgs-POL.sml.pdf The Great October Socialist Revolution ushered in a new era in the history of mankind, the era of the downfall of capitalism and the establishment of communism. Socialism has triumphed in the Soviet Union and has achieved decisive victories in the People's Democracies; socialism has become the practical cause of hundreds of millions of people, and the banner of the revolutionary movement of the working class throughout the world. 300 DPI PDF :: File Size :1.824 MB Download Now..
48. https://russkiymir.ru/en/publications/233595/ Georgii Osipov. Vladimir Lenin: You Can’t Make a Revolution Wearing White Gloves 15.11.2017. .. – Mr. Lenin, today as we celebrate the centenary of the October uprising, one of the most important events of the past century, we would be interested to hear directly from you: what was the main goal that you set for yourselves? – We only have one byword, one slogan: everyone who labors has a right to enjoy the advantages of life. The sponges and parasites who suck the blood from the laboring people should be deprived of these advantages. So we proclaim: everything is for the workers, everything is for the laborers! – But haven’t already paid a high price—and don’t we continue to pay one now—for this social experiment? – You can’t make a revolution wearing white gloves. Until there is no violence against the masses, there is no other pathway to power. One must promote the energy and mass-character of terror. Mass searches. Execution for holding weapons. Merciless terror against kulaks, priests, and the White Army. You must lock up suspicious characters in concentration camps. You must execute conspirators and anyone who wavers, asking no questions and allowing for no idiotic red tape. You need to make the people see what you’re doing and tremble for hundreds of kilometers around. Let 90% of the Russian people perish if it allows just 10% to live to see a worldwide revolution. ..
49. http://katesmith.org/gba.html Richard K. Hayes. God Bless America, Land That I Love. Last updated November 8, 2009.
50. https://library.ucsd.edu/dc/object/bb1502896p The evil system of colonialism and imperialism. Chinese Cultural Revolution Posters. Description A crowd of African Americans armed with rifles and torches revolts in front of a burning government building. The poster bears a quotation from Mao stating, The evil system of colonialism and imperialism arose and throve with the enslavement of negroes and the trade of negroes, and it will surely come to its end with the complete emancipation of the black people. One of the crowd holds a placard identifying the quote as having been issued on April 16, 1968.
51. https://www.therapidian.org/ethics-and-religion-talk-how-do-you-know-immortal-soul-exists Rabbi David J.B.Krishef. Do all of you believe that everyone has an immortal soul? 1/22/19 01:00pm.
52. https://www.christiancourier.com/articles/1446-do-human-beings-have-an-immortal-soul Wayne Jackson. Do Human Beings Have an Immortal Soul? July 4, 2020.
53. https://www.ucg.org/bible-study-tools/booklets/heaven-and-hell-what-does-the-bible-really-teach/is-heaven-gods-reward-for-the-righteous UCG.org / Bible Study Tools / Booklets / Heaven and Hell: What Does the Bible Really Teach? / Is Heaven God's Reward for the Righteous? (2020) .. The Westminster Confession of Faith, written in the 17th century, states: “The bodies of men after death return to dust, and see corruption; but their souls, (which never die nor sleep,) having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them. The souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies.” .. The view that a person’s soul goes to heaven at death—though held by many in good faith—cannot be found in the Bible. ..
54. http://www.pcp.pt/en/it-deep-conviction-socialism-and-communism-are-future-humanity-we-pursue-our-struggle Jerónimo de Sousa. «It is with the deep conviction that socialism and communism are the future of Humanity that we pursue our struggle» 8 November 2017, Lisbon.
55. Fujihara Masahiko. The dignity of the nation. Tokyo. 2007. (No online version is founr)
56. https://academic.oup.com/socrel/article-abstract/50/2/129/1618582?redirectedFrom=PDF https://www.jstor.org/stable/3710983?seq=1 Mathisen J.A. Twenty Years After Bellah: Whatever Happened to American Civil Religion? Journal article by James A. Mathisen; SA. Sociological Analysis, 50 1989, pp. 129-146. Published: 01 July 1989
57. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1465621 Carolyn Marvin and David W.Ingle. Blood Sacri ce and the Nation: Revisiting Civil Religion Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 64, No.4, Thematic Issue on \Religion and American Popular Culture" (1996), pp. 767-780.
58. https://www.religion-online.org/book/varieties-of-civil-religion/ Robert N. Bellah, Phillip E. Hammond. Varieties of Civil Religion. New York: Harper & Row. 1980.
59. https://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.72.013617 D.Kouznetsov, H.Oberst. Scattering of waves at ridged mirrors. PRA, volume 72, pages 013617 (2005)
64. https://www2.stetson.edu/~psteeves/classes/amalrik1.html WILL THE SOVIET UNION SURVIVE UNTIL 1984 by Andrei Amalrik (1969)
65. https://www.healio.com/news/psychiatry/20170830/math-tools-may-improve-prediction-in-psychiatry Quentin Huys. Math tools may improve prediction in psychiatry. August 31, 2017
66. http:// www.vbvvbv.narod.ru/Lgenauka.htm д.ф.н. Корюкин В.И. ЛЖЕНАУКА - ЧТО ЗА СЛОВОМ? (in Russian) Korukin V.I. Pseudoscience - what is behind the word? Екатеринбург, февраль 2003г.
67. http://www.uran.ru/gazetanu/2003/01/nu02/wvmnu_p1a_02_012003.htm А.ЗАСТЫРЕЦ. Заседание Президиума 16 января. (In Russian). Zastyretz A. Meeting of the Presidium. Science of Ural, N2 (830), January 2003.
68. http://russcience.euro.ru/papers/son91vr2.htm А.С.Сонин. ПЕЧАЛЬНЫЙ ЮБИЛЕЙ ОДНОЙ КАМПАНИИ. // Вестник РАН, 1991, т.61, №8, с.96-107. (in Russian) Sonin A.S. Sad jubilee of one company. Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1991, 61, N8, p.96-107.
69. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11533721/ V.N.Soyfer. The consequences of political dictatorship for Russian science. Nat Rev Genet. 2001 Sep;2(9):723-9. PMID: 11533721 DOI: 10.1038/35088598 Abstract. The Soviet communist regime had devastating consequences on the state of Russian twentieth century science. Country Communist leaders promoted Trofim Lysenko--an agronomist and keen supporter of the inheritance of acquired characters--and the Soviet government imposed a complete ban on the practice and teaching of genetics, which it condemned as a "bourgeois perversion". Russian science, which had previously flourished, rapidly declined, and many valuable scientific discoveries made by leading Russian geneticists were forgotten.
70. http://www.jaapl.org/cgi/reprint/30/1/107.pdf Alan A. Stone, MD. Psychiatrists on the side of the angels. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 30, p.107-11, 2002.
71. http://www.jaapl.org/cgi/reprint/30/1/136.pdf Richard J. Bonnie, LLB. Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union and in China. J. Am Acad Psychiatry Law 30, p.136-44, 2002
72. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7149424/ Stephen Faraone. Psychiatry and political repression in the Soviet Union. American Psychologist. 37(10), 1982, 1105-1112. Discusses how psychiatric facilities in the USSR have been used as instruments of political repression. Aspects of the Soviet legal system and Soviet psychiatry that have contributed to this state of affairs are discussed, along with the "therapeutic" regimens (including punitive chemical treatments and physical torture) applied to dissidents in psychiatric hospitals. A case study is presented, and avenues of action for American psychologists interested in alleviating the problem are suggested. (26 ref) (APA PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
73. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry/article/political-hazards-in-the-diagnosis-of-sluggish-schizophrenia/2577C3DBD00C099F571F9EE7014BFA21 Merskey H and Shafran B. Political hazards in the diagnosis of ’sluggish schizophrenia’. The British Journal of Psychiatry 148 247-256 (1986). The concept of ‘sluggish schizophrenia’ is virtually limited to the USSR and some other East European countries, and may contribute to the mis-diagnosis of democrats as psychiatric patients. Recently, a number of articles have appeared in the Soviet literature relating the diagnosis of ‘sluggish schizophrenia’ or ‘slowly progressive schizophrenia’ to affective disorders, especially hypomania. Soviet publications on this theme from 1980 to 1984 are discussed, together with their relationship to questions on the abuse of psychiatry.
74. http://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/5372/ В.ГИНЗБУРГ. О ЛЖЕНАУКЕ И НЕОБХОДИМОСТИ БОРЬБЫ С НЕЙ. (In Russian) Ginzburg V.L. About the pseudoscience and the need to fight it. Science and Life, N11, 2000.
75. https://rg.ru/2009/05/20/komissia-dok.html Д. Медведев. Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 15 мая 2009 г. N 549 "О Комиссии при Президенте Российской Федерации по противодействию попыткам фальсификации истории в ущерб интересам России" 20 мая 2009 г. Российская газета - Федеральный выпуск № 89(4913)(in Russian) Medvedev V.A. Commission to counter attempts to falsify the history to the detriment of Russia.
76. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8166020.stm James Rodgers. Russia acts against ’false’ history. BBC News, 24 July 2009.
77. http://www.mltranslations.org/Brazil/revis.htm Editorial. O Proletariado. (Organ of the Revolutionary Communist Party of Brazil). Deepen the Struggle Against Revisionism and Opportunism Raising The Banner of Marxism, the Party and the Revolution. May, 1997,
78. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1908/apr/03.htm Lenin V.I. Marxism and Revisionism. Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1973, Moscow, Volume 15, pages 29-39.
79. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988IAUS..130..129K A. I. Kopylov, D. Yu. Kuznetsov, T. S. Fetisova, V. F. Shvartsman. Possible inhomogeneities in the Universe on scales of 200 - 300 Mpc from observation on the 6-m telescope. - J. Audouze et al.(eds.), Large structure of the Universe, IAU, 1988, p.129-137.
80. http://www.jetpletters.ac.ru/ps/1266/article_19153.pdf D.Kuznetsov. Quantum fluctuation do not destroy an optical soliton. Pis'ma Zh.Exp.Theor.Phyz.54, No.10, 566-568.
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0954-8998/4/4/003 Kouznetsov D.Yu. Quantum fluctuations do not annihilate the optical soliton. 1992 Quantum Optics, 4 221-227. Abstract. The behaviour of optical solitons in non-linear fibres with dispersion is discussed. The possibility of quantum decay of the fundamental soliton is investigated. The evolution of the second-order correlation function is analysed. A theorem on the evolution of the fourth-order correlation function is presented. It provides the proof of the stability of the fundamental soliton.
81. http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/PAPERS/1997density.pdf V.V.Voitsekhovich, D.Kouznetsov, D.Kh.Morozov. Density of turbulence-induced phase dislocations. Applied Optics, 1998, 37, No.21, p.4525-4535.
82. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224438921_Perturbation_theory_for_surface-profile_imaging_with_a_capacitive_probe Garcia-Valenzuela A., Bruce N.C., Kouznetsov D. Perturbation theory for surface-profile imaging with a capacitive probe. Appl.Phys.Lett. 77, (2000) p. 2066-2068. We derive a perturbative series solution to the capacitance between two parallel electrodes with irregular profiles. The coefficients in the series are calculated using fast Fourier transform algorithms resulting in a very fast method. The applicability of the perturbative series solution is extended by introducing a spectral window function which can make the series converge in cases where the standard series does not converge. We show that the filtered perturbative solution is applicable to surface profiles with surprisingly large features. However, limitations on its applicability to surfaces with high spatial frequencies remain. Perturbation theory could be a powerful tool for simulating surface-profile images obtained by scanning a capacitive probe. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
83. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ChJPh..40..130L/abstract Ley-Koo E., Villa-Torres G., Kouznetsov D. Aharonov-Bohm effect on Landau states in annular Cylindrical Boxes. Chinese J. of Physics, 40, No.2, p.130-141 (2002).
84. http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/PAPERS/2007jlwt.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/3244387_Comments_on_Study_of_the_Complex_Atomic_Susceptibility_of_Erbium-Doped_Fiber_Amplifiers J.-F.Bisson, D.Kouznetsov. Comments on "Study of the Complex Atomic Susceptibility of Erbium-Doped Fiber Ampli ers" Journal of Lightwave Technology, v. 26, No.4, p. 457-459 (2008)
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86. http://www.ils.uec.ac.jp/~dima/PAPERS/nanoscope.pdf
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